Global invasive species database

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Common name
Synonym
Salmo fontinalis , Mitchill, 1814
Salmo canadensis , Griffith & Smith, 1834
Salmo hudsonicus , Suckley, 1861
Baione fontinalis , (Mitchill, 1814)
Salvelinus timagamiensis , Henn & Rinckenbach 1925
Similar species
Summary
Introduced as a highly desirable fish for both angling and aquaculture throughout the world, Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) is an invasive that threatens native amphibians and fish, as well as the ecology of lakes and streams. Several native fish and amphibians face threatened or endangered status as a result of their introduction. Removal of Salvelinus fontinalis has been conducted in many places to allow for the recovery of endemic species.
Species Description
Salvelinus fontinalis has a long, streamlined body usually ranging from 40-50cm long. Its distinct colouration includes a black to dark green back and dorsal fin marbled with paler vermiculations and either a white or reddish belly. It has many pale and some red spots surrounded by blue halos along its sides. The anal, pelvic, and pectoral fins are reddish with a white leading edge and a dark stripe. It also has a adipose fin and slightly forked caudal fin. Its mouth is large and terminal. Males possess a kype on their lower jaw and exhibit very bright orange colouration along it sides during the breeding season. The longest recorded specimen was 86cm and the heaviest was 9.4 kg (FishBase, 2001).
Notes
Salvelinus fontinalis is actually a char and not a trout despite its common name. It has a medium resiliency and a minimum population doubling time of 1.4-4.4 years (FishBase, 2001).

Salvelinus fontinalis hybrids include: S. fontinalis x S. namaycush: commonly known as splake (United Kingdom), splejk (Sweden);
S. fontinalis x S. alpinusommonly known as sparctic charr, sparctic trout (United Kingdom), Elsässer Saibling (Germany), Brødding (Denmark), Bröding (Sweden);
S. fontinalis x Salmo trutta commonly known as tiger trout, tigerfish (United Kingdom) Tigerfisch (Germany), Tigerfisk, tigerforell, tigeröring (Sweden) (Jansson, 2008).

Lifecycle Stages
Brook trout sac fry hatch from eggs after about 100 days at 5°C. These tiny larvae stay in the 'redd' absorbing their yolk. They are about 4cm long when they emerge from the 'redd' to begin feeding. In both sexes fish reach maturity in an average 2 years. Average life span is about 5 years (FishBase, 2001).
Uses
Brook trout are extremely popular in aquaculture and angling. Most of their introductions have been because of this. They are an important food source and socio-economic resource. Also, they are commonly used as experimentation test individuals (FishBase, 2001).
Habitat Description
Salvelinus fontinalis inhabit cool, well-oxygenated streams, lakes, and small to medium rivers, as well as estuaries and shallow, coastal or, neritopelagic, marine environments. Most remain in freshwater courses, but some are anandromous, travelling to the sea in the spring. Those who leave freshwater environments usually stay within a few kilometres from river mouths and return to their freshwater habitats in the late summer and fall. Brook trout are demersal and prefer to inhabit pools with large woody debris. They occur in temperate environments 0-25°C and in a depth range of about 15-27m. They are relatively tolerant of acidic waters withstanding a pH as low as 5.0 (FishBase, 2001; Flebbe, 1999)
Reproduction
Oviparous. Sexual. External Fertilization. Spawning occurs in shallow riffles or shoreline with loose gravel and oxygen-rich water during late summer or autumn depending on the climate. Males court females by driving them towards suitable spawning gravel. Receptive females dig a depression, or 'redd', in the gravel bed. Males swim around the female, over and under her, while she digs. He rubs her with his fins and fends off other males. The pair enter the redd and the female deposits the eggs while the male fertilizes them. The female then covers the eggs with small gravel and sediment (FishBase, 2001).
Nutrition
Brook trout are considered opportunistic feeders. They prefer larger prey but feed on a wide range of organisms including worms, leeches, beetles, crustaceans, molluscs, fishes, small amphibians: frogs and salamanders, small mammals, insects: chironomids, caddisflies, blackflies, mayflies, stoneflies, and dragonflies, and sometimes plant matter (FishBase, 2001; Morinville & Rasmussen, 2006).
Pathway
Most introductions of Salvelnus fontinalis have resulted from aquaculture endeavours (FishBase, 2001).

Principal source: FishBase. 2001. Salvelinus fontinalis Brook trout. USGS. Fuller, P. 2006. Salvelinus fontinalis USGS nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. .

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Pam Fuller USGS/BRD, Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Program. Florida Integrated Science Center. USA

Publication date: 2009-05-21

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Salvelinus fontinalis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1226 on 24-08-2016.

General Impacts
Introductions of invasive Salvelinus fontinalis as the result of angling and aquaculture have facilitated a severe impact on native systems throughout the world. Impacts include the severely threatening replacement and displacement of, as well as, competition and hybridization with native fishes; predation and population reduction of amphibians to the point of endangerment; and top down cascading trophic interactions resulting in modifications of benthic zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and algal communities. Brook trout have been found to compete with, displace, or replace many fish species throughout the world including golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita), brown trout (Salmo trutta), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri), Colorado River Basin cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii), greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki stomias), and Lohantan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi), bull trout (see Salvelinus confluentus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), and chinook trout (Oncorhynchus tshawytsch).
Hybridization between brook trout and native species poses another threat to endemic fish. Hybridizations with brown trout (Salmo trutta), Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), and threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) have been recorded.

Finally, many introductions of Salvelinus fontinalis were to previously fishless lakes which resulted in a dramatic reduction of many threatened, even endangered amphibian populations. Specific negative interactions by introduced brook trout have been imposed on the Chiricahua leopard frog (see Rana chiricahuensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), Colombia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), tailed frog (Ascaphus truel), cascade frog (see Rana cascadae in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), Iberian frog (see Rana iberica in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile), long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum), boreal toad (see Bufo boreas in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), palmate newt (Triturus helveticus), alpine newt (Triturus alpestris), marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus), and endangered species mountain yellow-legged frog (see Rana muscosa in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Bosch et al. 2006; Bradford, 1998; Dunham, 2004; FishBase, 2001; Leary et al. 1993; Levin et al. 2002; Nakano et al. 1998; Reiman et al. 2006; Spens et al. 2007; Fuller, 2006; Jansson, 2008).

Management Info
Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

Physical: Several methods of physical removal of Salvelinus fontinalis have been utilized to allow for recovery of affected native species. These methods result in little if any effects on non-target organisms or detriment to surrounding environments. They are very effective in small areas but prove somewhat inefficient on a grander scale. Methods include the use of depletion electrofishing, capture with monofilament gill nets, and underwater angling.

Electrofishing and removal has been employed in several instances and has replaced the use of ichthyocides in many locations. Treatment methods include backpack and boat mounted shockers. In the Colorado River Basin, USA, brook trout were removed to successfully promote severely diminished Colorado River Basin cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus) populations using three pass depletion-removal electrofishing. Similarly, brook trout were eradicated from several creeks in Montana, USA to study the effects on failing, native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii). Another electofishing removal study was successfully conducted in Colorado, USA to investigate the effects of brook trout on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) (Peterson et al. 2004; Thompson & Rahel 1996; Shepard, 2004).

The removal of S. fontinalis using monofilament gill nets was successful recovering endangered mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) in the 60 Lakes Basin of Kings Canyon National Park in the Sierra Nevada, USA. Another study in the Sierra Nevada in Maul Lake found the use of gill nets to be effective and more cost efficient than the use of piscicide Rotenone in small lakes. In Mount Rainer Park, Washington, USA, nets were employed to remove brook trout from a mountain lake, which yielded a successful recovery of northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile). Finally, the same method was used in Bighorn Lake, Alberta, Canada to study eradication of non-native fish to study their effects cascading trophic interactions. Conclusions found eradication to provide a partial to full recovery of lake flora and fauna (Vrendenburg, 2004; Knapp & Matthews, 1998; Hoffman et al. 2004; Parker & Schindler, 2006).

Underwater angling using live invertebrate bait is a primitive yet effective method used in Elk Creek, Montana, USA to eradicate S. fontinalis and successfully recover threatened native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) (Nakano et al. 1998).

Chemical: The use of toxic piscicides for the removal S. fontinalis, and fish in general, has dramatically declined as a result of improved understanding of its ecological effects and mortality of nontarget organisms. The use of piscicides is effective, especially in large areas were physical removal methods prove inefficient. However, most eradications are done to aid threatened native organisms which is difficult when considering their probable harm as a result of piscicide use. Treatment methods include drip stations and backpack and helicopter mounted sprayers. Successful eradication of brook trout using antimycin was performed in Yellowstone Lake tributary Arinca Creek in Wyoming, USA to allow for cutthroat trout recovery. Rotenone is another effective piscicide in eradicating brook trout (Gresswell, 1991; Knapp & Matthews, 1998).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Salvelinus fontinalis
Informations on Salvelinus fontinalis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Salvelinus fontinalis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Introductions of invasive Salvelinus fontinalis as the result of angling and aquaculture have facilitated a severe impact on native systems throughout the world. Impacts include the severely threatening replacement and displacement of, as well as, competition and hybridization with native fishes; predation and population reduction of amphibians to the point of endangerment; and top down cascading trophic interactions resulting in modifications of benthic zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and algal communities. Brook trout have been found to compete with, displace, or replace many fish species throughout the world including golden trout (Oncorhynchus aguabonita), brown trout (Salmo trutta), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri), Colorado River Basin cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus), westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii), greenback cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki stomias), and Lohantan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi), bull trout (see Salvelinus confluentus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), and chinook trout (Oncorhynchus tshawytsch).
Hybridization between brook trout and native species poses another threat to endemic fish. Hybridizations with brown trout (Salmo trutta), Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), and threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) have been recorded.

Finally, many introductions of Salvelinus fontinalis were to previously fishless lakes which resulted in a dramatic reduction of many threatened, even endangered amphibian populations. Specific negative interactions by introduced brook trout have been imposed on the Chiricahua leopard frog (see Rana chiricahuensis in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata), Colombia spotted frog (Rana luteiventris), wood frog (Rana sylvatica), tailed frog (Ascaphus truel), cascade frog (see Rana cascadae in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), Pacific tree frog (Pseudacris regilla), Iberian frog (see Rana iberica in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum), northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile), long-toed salamander (Ambystoma macrodactylum), boreal toad (see Bufo boreas in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), palmate newt (Triturus helveticus), alpine newt (Triturus alpestris), marbled newt (Triturus marmoratus), and endangered species mountain yellow-legged frog (see Rana muscosa in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) (Bosch et al. 2006; Bradford, 1998; Dunham, 2004; FishBase, 2001; Leary et al. 1993; Levin et al. 2002; Nakano et al. 1998; Reiman et al. 2006; Spens et al. 2007; Fuller, 2006; Jansson, 2008).

Red List assessed species 6: EN = 1; VU = 2; NT = 3;
Outcomes
[20] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [16] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [1] Habitat degradation
[8] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Species range change (i.e. contraction, shift)
  • [7] Alteration of genetic resources
Management information
Preventative measures: The use of potentially invasive alien species for aquaculture and their accidental release/or escape can have negative impacts on native biodiversity and ecosystems. Hewitt et al, (2006) Alien Species in Aquaculture: Considerations for responsible use aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (Australia, New Zealand and Chile). The publication also provides recommendations for a ‘simple’ set of guidelines and principles for developing countries that can be applied at a regional or domestic level for the responsible management of Alien Species use in aquaculture development. These guidelines focus primarily on marine systems, however may equally be applied to freshwater.

Copp et al, (2005) Risk identification and assessment of non-native freshwater fishes presents a conceptual risk assessment approach for freshwater fish species that addresses the first two elements (hazard identification, hazard assessment) of the UK environmental risk strategy. The paper presents a few worked examples of assessments on species to facilitate discussion. The electronic Decision-support tools- Invasive-species identification tool kits that includes a freshwater and marine fish invasives scoring kit are made available on the Cefas (Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science) page for free download (subject to Crown Copyright (2007-2008)).

Physical: Several methods of physical removal of Salvelinus fontinalis have been utilized to allow for recovery of affected native species. These methods result in little if any effects on non-target organisms or detriment to surrounding environments. They are very effective in small areas but prove somewhat inefficient on a grander scale. Methods include the use of depletion electrofishing, capture with monofilament gill nets, and underwater angling.

Electrofishing and removal has been employed in several instances and has replaced the use of ichthyocides in many locations. Treatment methods include backpack and boat mounted shockers. In the Colorado River Basin, USA, brook trout were removed to successfully promote severely diminished Colorado River Basin cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki pleuriticus) populations using three pass depletion-removal electrofishing. Similarly, brook trout were eradicated from several creeks in Montana, USA to study the effects on failing, native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisii). Another electofishing removal study was successfully conducted in Colorado, USA to investigate the effects of brook trout on native cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) (Peterson et al. 2004; Thompson & Rahel 1996; Shepard, 2004).

The removal of S. fontinalis using monofilament gill nets was successful recovering endangered mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) in the 60 Lakes Basin of Kings Canyon National Park in the Sierra Nevada, USA. Another study in the Sierra Nevada in Maul Lake found the use of gill nets to be effective and more cost efficient than the use of piscicide Rotenone in small lakes. In Mount Rainer Park, Washington, USA, nets were employed to remove brook trout from a mountain lake, which yielded a successful recovery of northwestern salamander (Ambystoma gracile). Finally, the same method was used in Bighorn Lake, Alberta, Canada to study eradication of non-native fish to study their effects cascading trophic interactions. Conclusions found eradication to provide a partial to full recovery of lake flora and fauna (Vrendenburg, 2004; Knapp & Matthews, 1998; Hoffman et al. 2004; Parker & Schindler, 2006).

Underwater angling using live invertebrate bait is a primitive yet effective method used in Elk Creek, Montana, USA to eradicate S. fontinalis and successfully recover threatened native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) (Nakano et al. 1998).

Chemical: The use of toxic piscicides for the removal S. fontinalis, and fish in general, has dramatically declined as a result of improved understanding of its ecological effects and mortality of nontarget organisms. The use of piscicides is effective, especially in large areas were physical removal methods prove inefficient. However, most eradications are done to aid threatened native organisms which is difficult when considering their probable harm as a result of piscicide use. Treatment methods include drip stations and backpack and helicopter mounted sprayers. Successful eradication of brook trout using antimycin was performed in Yellowstone Lake tributary Arinca Creek in Wyoming, USA to allow for cutthroat trout recovery. Rotenone is another effective piscicide in eradicating brook trout (Gresswell, 1991; Knapp & Matthews, 1998).

Bibliography
49 references found for Salvelinus fontinalis

Managment information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
FishBase, 2001. Salvelinus fontinalis Brook trout. http://www.fishbase.org
Summary: This comprehensive fish database has much detailed information on Salvelinus fontinalis and its introductions throughout the world.
Available from: http://www.fishbase.org/Summary/speciesSummary.php?ID=246&genusname=Salvelinus&speciesname=fontinalis [Accessed 30 October 2007]
Fuller, P. 2006. Salvelinus fontinalis USGS nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainsville, Fl.
Summary: This is an excellent source with comprehensive detailed information about brook trout introductions in the United States and some of its effects on native species.
Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=939 [Accessed 5 November 2007]
Gascon, C., Collins, J. P., Moore, R. D., Church, D. R., McKay, J. E. and Mendelson, J. R. III (eds). 2007. Amphibian Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Amphibian Specialist Group. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. 64pp.
Summary: The Amphibian Conservation Action Plan (ACAP) is designed to provide guidance for implementing amphibian conservation and research initiatives at all scales from global down to local.
Available from: http://www.amphibians.org/newsletter/ACAP.pdf [Accessed 9 June 2008]
Gresswell, R.E. 1991. Use of antimycin for removal of brook trout from a tributary of Yellowstone Lake. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. Vol. 11:83-90.
Summary: A study on the removal of brook trout from a stream in Wyoming, USA using a piscicide to allow for Yellowstone cutthroat trout recovery.
IUCN 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2010.4.
Summary: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species provides taxonomic, conservation status and distribution information on taxa that have been globally evaluated using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. This system is designed to determine the relative risk of extinction, and the main purpose of the IUCN Red List is to catalogue and highlight those taxa that are facing a higher risk of global extinction (i.e. those listed as Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable). The IUCN Red List also includes information on taxa that are categorized as Extinct or Extinct in the Wild; on taxa that cannot be evaluated because of insufficient information (i.e. are Data Deficient); and on taxa that are either close to meeting the threatened thresholds or that would be threatened were it not for an ongoing taxon-specific conservation programme (i.e. are Near Threatened).
Available from: http://www.iucnredlist.org/ [Accessed 25 May 2011]
Jansson, K., 2008. NOBANIS � Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet � Salvelinus fontinalis.
Summary: The North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS) is a gateway to information on alien and invasive species in North and Central Europe. The participating countries are Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Faroe Islands, Germany, Greenland, Iceland, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, European part of Russia, Sweden. The NOBANIS project will provide fact sheets on 60 of the most invasive alien species of the region, covering both animals and plant as well as microorganisms. We intend to upload 60 fact sheets - so please visit this page regularly.
NOBANIS is available from: www.nobanis.org, this page is available from: http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/Salvelinus%20fontinalis.pdf [Accessed 16 August 21 2008]
Knapp, R.A. and Matthews, K.R. 1998. Eradication of nonnative fish by gill netting from a small mountain lake in California. Restoration Ecology. Vol. 6, No. 2: 207-213.
Summary: A study on the removal of Salvelinus fontinalis from a lake by gill netting.
Mendoza, R.E.; Cudmore, B.; Orr, R.; Balderas, S.C.; Courtenay, W.R.; Osorio, P.K.; Mandrak, N.; Torres, P.A.; Damian, M.A.; Gallardo, C.E.; Sanguines, A.G.; Greene, G.; Lee, D.; Orbe-Mendoza, A.; Martinez, C.R.; and Arana, O.S. 2009. Trinational Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species. Commission for Environmental Cooperation. 393, rue St-Jacques Ouest, Bureau 200, Montr�al (Qu�bec), Canada. ISBN 978-2-923358-48-1.
Summary: In 1993, Canada, Mexico and the United States signed the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC) as a side agreement to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The NAAEC established the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) to help the Parties ensure that improved economic efficiency occurred simultaneously with trinational environmental cooperation. The NAAEC highlighted biodiversity as a key area for trinational cooperation. In 2001, the CEC adopted a resolution (Council Resolution 01-03), which created the Biodiversity Conservation Working Group (BCWG), a working group of high-level policy makers from Canada, Mexico and the United States. In 2003, the BCWG produced the �Strategic Plan for North American Cooperation in the Conservation of Biodiversity.� This strategy identified responding to threats, such as invasive species, as a priority action area. In 2004, the BCWG, recognizing the importance of prevention in addressing invasive species, agreed to work together to develop the draft CEC Risk Assessment Guidelines for Aquatic Alien Invasive Species (hereafter referred to as the Guidelines). These Guidelines will serve as a tool to North American resource managers who are evaluating whether or not to introduce a non-native species into a new ecosystem. Through this collaborative process, the BCWG has begun to implement its strategy as well as address an important trade and environment issue. With increased trade comes an increase in the potential for economic growth as well as biological invasion, by working to minimize the potential adverse impacts from trade, the CEC Parties are working to maximize the gains from trade while minimizing the environmental costs.
Available from: English version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5516_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_en.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
French version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5517_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_fr.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010]
Spanish version: http://www.cec.org/Storage/62/5518_07-64-CEC%20invasives%20risk%20guidelines-full-report_es.pdf [Accessed 15 June 2010].
Nakano, S., Kitano, S., Nakai, K., and Fausch, K.D. 1998. Competitive interactions for foraging microhabitat among introduced brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, and native bull charr, S.confluentus, and westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, in a Montana stream. Environmental Biology of Fishes. Vol. 52: 345-355.
Summary: This study involves the competitive interactions between native westslope cutthroat trout and introduced brook trout in Montana.
Parker, B.R. and Schindler, D.W. 2006. Cascading trophic interactions in an oligotrophic species-poor alpine lake. Ecosystems. Vol. 9: 157-166.
Summary: This journal article concerns the resultant trophic effects of introduced fish.
Shepard, B.B. 2004. Factors that may be influencing nonnative brook trout invasion and their displacement of native westslope cutthroat trout in three adjacent southwestern Montana streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. Vol 24, No. 3:1088-1100.
Summary: This abstract discusses effects of brook trout on native westslope cutthroat trout in Montana.
Thompson, P.D. and Rahel, F.J. 1996. Evaluation of depletion-removal electrofishing of brook trout in small Rocky Mountain streams. North American Journal of Fisheries Management. Vol. 16: 332-339.
Summary: This study evaluated the use of three-pass depletion electrofishing in removing brook trout to allow for recovery of cutthroat trout.
Vredenburg, V.T. 2004. Reversing introduced species effects: experimental removal of introduced fish leads to rapid recovery of a declining frog. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Vol. 101, No. 20: 7646-7650.
Summary: A removal study of Salvelinus fontinalis and the recovery of endangered Rana muscosa.
General information
Bjorkelid, L. 2004. Invasiveness of brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in small boreal headwater streams. Dept. of Aquaculture, SLU.
Summary: Good information regarding Salvelinus fontinalis in Sweden and effects on native brown trout
Available from: http://ex-epsilon.slu.se/archive/00000550/01/Examensarbete.pdf [Accessed 5 November 2007]
Blanchet S, Loot G, Grenouillet G, and Brosse S. 2007. Competitive interactions between native and exotic salmonids: a combined field and laboratory demonstration. Ecology of Freshwater Fish. Vol 16: 133-143.
Summary: A study of interactions between exotic fish Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with native brown trout (Salmo trutta fario)
Bosch, J., Rincon, P.A., Boyero, L., and Martinez-Solano, I. 2006. Conservation Biology. Vol. 20 No. 1: 180-189.
Summary: This study examines the effects of introduced brook trout on declining the Iberian frog (Rana iberica) in Spain.
Bradford, D. 1991. Mass mortality and extinction in a high-elevation population of Rana muscosa. Journal of Herpetology. Vol. 25, No. 2: 174-177.
Summary: One of several studies concerning introduced brook trout interactions with now endangered mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa).
Bradford, D. 1998. Allotopic distribution of native frogs and introduced fishes in high Sierra Nevada Lakes of California: implication of the negative effect of fish introductions. Copeia. Vol. 1989, No. 3: 775-778.
Summary: Another study dealing with introduced fish including brook trout and their effects on (Rana mucosa).
Bradford, D, Tabatabai, F. and Graber, D.M. 1993. Conservation Biology. Vol. 7, No. 4: 882-888.
Summary: One of several studies concerning introduced brook trout interactions with now endangered mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa).
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Peces. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - fish is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Peces is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Peces [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Crossman, E. J. 1991. Introduced freshwater fishes: a review of the North American perspective with emphasis on Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Vol. 48 (Suppl. 1): 46-57.
Summary: A review of fish introductions in North America.
Available from: http://sgnis.org/publicat/papers/cjfas481.pdf [Accessed 1 November 2007]
Delacoste, M., Baran, P., Lascaux, J.M. Abad, N., Besson, J.P., Bergot, F., Vigneux, E. 1997. Evaluation of salmonid introductions in high-elevation lakes and streams of the Hautes-Pyrenees region. Bulletin francais de la peche et de la pisciculture.
Summary: This abstract acknowledges the introduction of brook trout to Haute-Pyrenees, France.
Dunham, J.B., Pilliod, D.S., Young, M.K. 2004. Assessing the consequences of nonnative trout in headwater ecosystems in Western North America. Fisheries. Vol. 29, No. 6: 18-26.
Summary: A study on negative impacts of introduced fish with some emphasis on amphibians
Available from: http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_other/rmrs_2004_dunham_j001.pdf [Accessed 12 November 2007]
Economidis, P.S., Dimitriou, E., Pagoni, R., Michaloudi, E., and Natsis, L. 2000. Introduced and translocated fish species in the inland waters of Greece. Fisheries Management and Ecology. Vol. 7: 239-250.
Summary: An examination of exotic fish in Greece including brook trout.
Fechney, L.R. 1988. The summer diet of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in a South Island high-country stream. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. Vol. 22: 163-168.
Summary: This study investigates the diet of brook trout and its overlap with native brown trout inferring competition.
Available from: http://www.rsnz.org/publish/nzjmfr/1988/18.pdf [Accessed 14 November 2007]
Flebbe, P.A. 1999. Trout use of woody debris and habitat in Wine Creek, North Carolina. Forest Ecology and Management. Vol. 114, Issues 2-3: 367-376.
Summary: This article provides important information about brook trout habitat selection, use, and migration.
Freyhoff, J. 2003. Immigration and potential impacts of invasive freshwater fishers in Germany. IGB-Berlin: 52-58.
Summary: An article describing many fish introductions to Germany and their circumstances.
Available from: http://www.igb-berlin.de/institut/deutsch/2002/Freyhof.pdf [Accessed 13 November 2007]
Hoffman, R.L., Larson, G.L., and Samora, B. 2004. Responses of Ambystoma gracile to the removal of introduced nonnative fish from a mountain lake. Journal of Herpetology. Vol. 38, No. 4: 578-585.
Summary: This removal study focuses on nonnative fishes effects on Ambystoma gracile in Washington, USA.
Innal, D. and Erka kan, F. 2006. Effects of exotic and translocated fish species in the inland water of Turkey. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries. Vol. 16: 39-50.
Summary: This source describes brook trout s introduction in Turkey.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill, 1814)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=162003 [Accessed 14 January 2008]
IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe. 2006. Global Amphibian Assessment. Downloaded on 4 May 2006.
Summary: The Global Amphibian Assessment (GAA) is the first-ever comprehensive assessment of the conservation status of the world s 5,918 known species of frogs, toads, salamanders, and caecilians. This website presents results of the assessments, including IUCN Red List threat category, range map, ecology information, and other data for every amphibian species.
Available from: http://www.globalamphibians.org/ [Accessed 5 November 2006].
Knapp, R.A. and Matthews, K.R. 2000. Non-native fish introductions and the decline of the mountain yellow-legged frog from within protected areas. Conservation Biology. Vol. 14, No. 2: 428-438.
Summary: A journal article on nonnative fish and endangered Rana muscosa in the Sierra Nevada, CA, USA.
Knapp, R. A., Hawkins C.P., Ladau J. and McClory, J.G. 2005. Fauna of Yosemite National Park lakes has low resistance but high resilience to fish introductions. Ecological Applications. Vol. 15, No. 3: 835-847.
Summary: This study quantifies the resistance and resilience of lake in Yosemite National Park to fish introductions.
Knapp, R.A. , Matthews, K.R., and Orlando, S. 2001. Resistance and resilience of Alpine lake fauna to fish introductions. Ecological Monographs. Vol. 71, No. 3: 401-421.
Summary: This is a study on the effects on nonnative fish on native amphibians, benthic marcroinvertebrates and zooplankton in previously fishless lakes.
Kruse, C.G. 1999. Influence of non-native trout and geomorphology on distributions of indigenous trout in Yellowstone River drainage of Wyoming. Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering. Vol 60. No. 1:6.
Summary: Dissertation abstract citing an effect of non-native fish on Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri).
Leary, R.F., Allendorf, F.W., and Forbes, S.H. 1993. Conservation genetics of bull trout in the Columbia and Klamath River Drainages. Conservation Biology. Vol. 7, No. 4: 856-865.
Summary: This study discusses the hybridization of brook trout with bull trout in the context of conserving native bull trout populations in the face of brook trout introductions.
Levin, P.S., Achord, S., Feist, B.E., and Zabel, R.W. 2002. Non-indigenous brook trout and the demise of Pacific salmon: a forgotten threat? Proceedings: Biological Sciences,. Vol. 269, No. 1501: 1663-1670.
Summary: A study on the effects of introduced brook trout on native threatened chinook salmon in the Columbia River basin.
Lintermans, M. 2004. Human-assisted dispersal of alien freshwater fish in Australia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research. Vol. 38:481-501.
Summary: This article discusses brook trout introduction in new Zealand.
Morinville, G.R. and Rasmussen, J.B. 2006. Marine feeding patterns of anadromous brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) inhabiting an estuarine river fjord. Canada Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science. Vol. 63: 2001-2027.
Summary: An article examining the diet of Salvelinus fontinalis.
Ohlund, G. 2002. Life history and large-scale habitat use of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Dept. of Aquaculture, SLU.
Summary: A Swedish study on introduced brook trout and native brown trout examining habitat and resource competition
Available from: http://ex-epsilon.slu.se/archive/00001372/01/Ohlund.pdf [Accessed 15 November 2007].
Orizola, G. and Brana, F. 2006. Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern Spain. Animal Conservation. Vol. 9: 171-178.
Summary: A study of brook trout s effects on amphibians in Spain.
Pascual, M., Macchi, P., Urbanski, J., Marcos, F., Rossi, C.R., Novara, M. and Arciprete, P. D. 2002. Evaluating potential effects of exotic freshwater fish from incomplete species presence-absence data. Biological Invasions. Vol. 4: 101-113.
Summary: An article that discusses brook trout introduction effects in Patagonia, South America.
Peterson, D.P., Fausch, K.D., and White, G.C. 2004. Population ecology of an invasion: effects of brook trout on native cutthroat trout. Ecological Applications. Vol. 14, No. 3: 754-772.
Summary: Effects of the introduction of brook trout on native cutthroat trout in Colorado.
Povz, M; Sumer, S., 2005. A brief review of non-native freshwater fishes in Slovenia. Journal of Applied Ichthyology, Volume 21, Number 4, August 2005 , pp. 316-318(3)
Rieman, B.E., Peterson, J.T., and Myers, D.L. 2006. Have brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) displaced bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) along longitudinal gradients in central Idaho streams. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. Vol. 63: 63-78.
Summary: An investigative study on interactions between brook trout and bull trout.
Spens, J., Alanara, A., and Eriksson, L. 2007. Nonnative brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and the demise of native brown trout (Salmo trutta) in northern boreal lakes: stealthy, long-term patterns? Canadian Journal of Fisheries Aquatic Science. Vol. 64: 654-664.
Summary: A journal article about the long term introductions of brook trout on brown trout in Sweden.
Vigliano, P.H. and Darrigran, G. 2002. Argentina s freshwater systems, aliens in wonderland.
Summary: This is a listing of alien species and their locations in Argentina.
Available from: http://malacologia.com.ar/MALACOLOGIA/PDF/32ProceedingsPablo-Gustavo2002.pdf [Accessed 8 November 2007]
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