Global invasive species database

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Common name
Brackwasserkrabbe (German), Zuiderzeekrabbetje (Dutch), Zuiderzee crab (English), white-fingered mud crab (English), estuarine mud crab (English), Harris mud crab (English), krabik amerykanski (Polish), Zuiderzeekrabbe (German), Østamerikansk brakvandskrabbe (Danish)
Synonym
Pilumnus harrisii , (Gould, 1841)
Pilumnus tridentatus , (Maitland, 1874)
Heteropanope tridentata , De Man J. G. (1892)
Rhithropanopeus harrisii , ssp. tridentatus (Buitendijk and Holtuis 1949)
Similar species
Summary
Rhithropanopeus harrisii is a small estuarine crab native to the Atlantic Coast of North America. It has invaded many locations in Europe and North America and is presumed to have dispersed mainly via oyster translocations and shipping. Anecdotal reports indicate that it can alter food webs, compete with native species, foul pipe systems, and be a vector of the white spot baculovirus.
Species Description
Rhithropanopeus harrisii, or the Harris mud crab, is a small euryhaline crab. It reaches approximately 2cm in carapace width as an adult and is greenish-brown or olive in colouration. It has white-tipped claws, unequal in size and dissimilar. The front of its carapace is almost straight, slightly notched, with its margin transversely grooved, appearing double when viewed from the front. Four anterolateral teeth (spines) line the side of its carapace between the eyestalks and the widest portion of the carapace. Its four walking legs are long, slender and sparsely hairy. (Williams 1984; Perry, 2007).
Notes
In Europe, Maitland (1874) initially described Rhithropanopeus harrisii as a native species, Pilumnus tridentatus. In 1949, Buitendijk and Holthuis recognized the exotic origins of this crab and reclassified it as Rhithropanopeus harrisii ssp. tridentatus, a synonym which has often been used to designate this species in Europe (Christiansen, 1969; Wolff, 2005).
Lifecycle Stages
Eggs remain attached to the mother’s pleopods until they hatch. Ovigerous females exhibit a rhythmic pumping behaviour when hatching begins, which helps synchronize hatching and facilitates larval release (Forward and Lohmann, 1983). Rhithropanopeus harrisii develops in four zoeal larval stages and a megalopal post larval stage before reaching adulthood. Development averages 16 days (Cripe et al., 2003). Sexual maturity can be reached as early as the breeding season following birth, at a carapace width of 4.5mm for males and 4.4 to 5.5mm for females (Ryan, 1956; Turoboyski, 1973).
Uses
Rhithropanopeus harrisii has been used as a study organism in many developmental and physiological studies (e.g. Christiansen and Costlow, 1975; Kalber and Costlow, 1966). The crab has also been used to examine the effects of various pesticides on non-target crustacean species (Clare et al. 1992), including juvenile hormone analogues (JHA's), a pest control agent which mimics insect larval hormones (Cripe et al. 2003).
Habitat Description
Rhithropanopeus harrisii can be found in estuaries and quasi-freshwater lakes with salinities as low as 0.4 ppt (Keith, 2006). It prefers brackish waters and commonly inhabits shores with muddy or sandy substrates. It usually associates with structures providing shelter such as oyster reefs, vegetation, logs, or debris of some type. It is tolerant to a wide range of salinities rendering it capable of invading a variety of aquatic habitats (Williams 1984, Petersen, 2006, Roche and Torchin 2007).
Reproduction
Oviparous. Sexual. Males place spermatophores into the female’s sprematheca. Unlike most other crab species, Rhithropanopeus harrisii females do not moult immediately before copulation, which usually takes place during the summer months. Approximately three to four days after copulation, females bury themselves up to the eye stalks to lay their eggs. This behaviour facilitates the attachment of the eggs to the pleopods. Ovigerous females will then remain sheltered in debris, shells, or sediment. Females usually lay between 1200 and 4800 eggs at a time depending on their size. In the Kiel Canal, Germany, large females were observed to lay as many as 16,000 eggs (Turoboyski, 1973).
Nutrition
Rhithropanopeus harrisii is omnivorous and known to feed on mangrove and leaf detritus, bivalve molluscs, oligochaetes, and dead fish. Small crabs have been observed to feed on small crustaceans such as amphipods and copepods. (Williams, 1984; Karpinsky, 2005).
Pathway
Although not confirmed, Rhithropanopeus harrisii is thought to have been introduced accidentally along with Atlantic oysters Crassostrea virginica to the San Francisco Bay (Roche, 2007).Although only confirmed on a few occasions, transport of decapods in ships' ballast water is considered the most common and effective means of introduction of exotic decapods including Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Rodriguez, 2001).Rhithropanopeus harrisii are known to have dispersed by attaching to the hulls of ships. This however has declined since the advent of metallic hulls and antifouling paints (Rodriguez, 2001).

Principal source: Perry, 2007. Rhithropanopeous harrisii. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database.
\r\nKeith, 2006. Harris mud crab. Tarleton State University.
Turoboyski, 1973. Biology and ecology of the crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii ssp. tridentatus. Marine Biology 23: 303-313.
Williams, 1984. Shrimps, lobsters, and crabs of the Atlantic Coast of the Eastern United States, Maine to Florida. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dominique Roche MacGill University Canada

Publication date: 2008-01-11

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1217 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
No study has yet quantified the impacts of Rhithropanopeus harrisii, but anecdotal reports in the scientific literature indicate that it can alter food webs, compete with and potentially displace native crabs, crayfish, as well as benthophagous fishes (reviewed in Roche and Torchin 2007). In the Caspian Sea, where it has reached very high densities, the crab is responsible for fouling water intake pipes and causes economic loss to fishermen by spoiling fishes in gill nets (Zaitsev and Öztürk 2001). In Texas, the crab has become very abundant in almost freshwater reservoirs and is reported to foul PVC intakes in lakeside homes and clog the cooling system of a nuclear powerplant in Glenrose (Keith, 2006; Hildebrand, pers. comm..). Payen and Bonami (1979) also identified R. harrisii as a carrier of the white spot baculovirus, which causes disease in penaeid prawn species and the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).
Management Info
Preventative measures: Transport in ballast water is thought to be the main vector of introduction for Rhithropanopeus harrisii. The GloBallast Programme has been established to reduce introductions of non-native species (such as R. harrisii) by providing funding and assistance to less-industrialized countries in order to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in the ballast water of ships. Implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) with funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), this programme will facilitate the implementation of the newly adopted IMO Ballast Water Convention in developing countries (GloBallast, undated).

Chemical: Diflubezuron, the active chemical in the pesticide Dimilin, has been experimentally used on R. harrisii (see McEnnulty et al., 2001). It is lethal to hatching larvae in concentrations of 7-10ppb. It works by inhibiting chitin synthesis and has been found to be an effective way of controlling arthropods. However, it lacks specificity and may take several weeks to degrade in brackish water environments (Christiansen and Costlow 1980).

Biological: The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei parasitizes R. harrisii in its native range. Parasitic barnacles infect their crab hosts at the larval stage (cyprid or cypris larva), develop as an endoparasite, and then produce an external reproductive body called the externa. Rhizocephalans stunt growth in their hosts and cause castration in both males and females, preventing future reproduction. Alvarez et al. (1995) experimentally infected R. harrisii from the Chesapeake Bay with L. panopaei and found that parasitism had a significant effect on the survival of infected hosts. However, further studies are necessary to determine whether L. panopei is a viable candidate for biological control of R. harrisii in its introduced range.

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rhithropanopeus harrisii
NATIVE RANGE
  • canada
  • mexico
  • united states
Informations on Rhithropanopeus harrisii has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rhithropanopeus harrisii in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
No study has yet quantified the impacts of Rhithropanopeus harrisii, but anecdotal reports in the scientific literature indicate that it can alter food webs, compete with and potentially displace native crabs, crayfish, as well as benthophagous fishes (reviewed in Roche and Torchin 2007). In the Caspian Sea, where it has reached very high densities, the crab is responsible for fouling water intake pipes and causes economic loss to fishermen by spoiling fishes in gill nets (Zaitsev and Öztürk 2001). In Texas, the crab has become very abundant in almost freshwater reservoirs and is reported to foul PVC intakes in lakeside homes and clog the cooling system of a nuclear powerplant in Glenrose (Keith, 2006; Hildebrand, pers. comm..). Payen and Bonami (1979) also identified R. harrisii as a carrier of the white spot baculovirus, which causes disease in penaeid prawn species and the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Aral Sea
POLAND
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[3] Competition
[1] Bio-fouling
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Modification of natural benthic communities
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to infrastructures
Management information
Preventative measures: Transport in ballast water is thought to be the main vector of introduction for Rhithropanopeus harrisii. The GloBallast Programme has been established to reduce introductions of non-native species (such as R. harrisii) by providing funding and assistance to less-industrialized countries in order to reduce the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens in the ballast water of ships. Implemented by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) with funding by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), this programme will facilitate the implementation of the newly adopted IMO Ballast Water Convention in developing countries (GloBallast, undated).

Chemical: Diflubezuron, the active chemical in the pesticide Dimilin, has been experimentally used on R. harrisii (see McEnnulty et al., 2001). It is lethal to hatching larvae in concentrations of 7-10ppb. It works by inhibiting chitin synthesis and has been found to be an effective way of controlling arthropods. However, it lacks specificity and may take several weeks to degrade in brackish water environments (Christiansen and Costlow 1980).

Biological: The rhizocephalan barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei parasitizes R. harrisii in its native range. Parasitic barnacles infect their crab hosts at the larval stage (cyprid or cypris larva), develop as an endoparasite, and then produce an external reproductive body called the externa. Rhizocephalans stunt growth in their hosts and cause castration in both males and females, preventing future reproduction. Alvarez et al. (1995) experimentally infected R. harrisii from the Chesapeake Bay with L. panopaei and found that parasitism had a significant effect on the survival of infected hosts. However, further studies are necessary to determine whether L. panopei is a viable candidate for biological control of R. harrisii in its introduced range.

Locations
PANAMA
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
53 references found for Rhithropanopeus harrisii

Managment information
Alvarez, F., Hines, A.H., and Reaka-Kulda, M.L. 1995. The effects of parasitism by the barnacle Loxothylacus panopaei(Gissler) (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala) on growth and the survival of the host crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) (Brachyura: Xanthidae). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. Vol. 192: 221-232.
Summary: This study consists of infection experiments in the laboratory to test the effects of the the barnacle parasite Loxothylacus panopaei on its host, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, from the Chesapeake Bay.
Carlton J.T 1985. Transoceanic and interoceanic dispersal of coastal marine organisms: the biology of ballast water. Oceanography and Marine Biology. An Annual Review 23: 313-371
Carlton J.T and Geller J.B 1993. Ecological roulette - the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261: 78-82
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Global Ballast Water Management Programme, undated. GloBallast Programme.
Summary: This websites outlines the directives of a program with the objectives of promoting the �Removal of Barriers to the Effective Implementation of Ballast Water Control and Management Measures in Developing Countries�
Available from: http://globallast.imo.org/index.asp?page=gef_interw_project.htm&menu=true [Accessed 10 December 2007]
McEnnulty, F.R., Jones, T.E., and Bax, N.J. 2001. The web-based rapid response toolbox.
Summary: This database offers information on pesticides which may be used to control arthropods, including the Harris mud crab.
Available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/crimp/nimpis/controlDetail.asp?ID=84 [Accessed 13 December 2007]
General information
Aladin, N.V. 1995. Ecological State of the Fauna of the Aral Sea during the last 30 years. GeoJournal. Vol. 35, No. 1: 29-32.
Summary: This article discusses the ecology of the Aral Sea and how it has been impacted by the introduction of nonindigenous species, including the Harris mud crab.
Aladin, N.V. and Plotnikov, I.S. 1995. Anthropogenic changes of the Aral Sea ecosystem. Zoological Institute Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab. 1, 199034, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Summary: This publication cites the introduction of Rhithropanopeus harrisii to the Aral Sea.
Available from: http://www.icef.eawag.ch/abstracts/aladinaral.pdf [Accessed 26 November 2007].
Aladin, N.V. and Potts, W.T.W. 1992. Changes in the Aral Sea ecosystems during the period 1960-1990. Hydrobiologia. Vol. 237: 67-79.
Summary: A publication reporting competition between introduced species, including Rhithropanopeus harrisii, and native benthic invertebrates and fishes in the Aral Sea.
Andreyev, N.I and Andreyeva, S.I. 1988. A crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii tridentatus (Decapoda, Xanthidae) in the Aral Sea. Zoologicheskij Zhurnal. Vol. 67, No. 1: 135-136
Summary: This article (in Russian) cites the introduction of the Harris mud crab to the Aral Sea.
Bacescu M.C 1967. Fauna Republicii Socialiste Rom�nia. Crustacea Decapoda. Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste Rom�nia 4(9): 1-351
Christiansen M.E and Costlow Jr. J.D 1975. The effect of salinity and cyclic temperature on larval development of the mud-crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Brachyura: Xanthidae) reared in the laboratory. Marine Biology 32: 215�221
Christiansen M.E and Costlow Jr. J.D 1980. Persistence of the insect growth regulator Dimilin? in brackish water: a laboratory evaluation using larvae of an estuarine crab as indicator. Helgoland Marine Research 33: 327-332
Clare A.S, Costlow J.D, Bedair H.M, Lumb, G 1992. Assessment of crab limb regeneration as an assay for developmental toxicity. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 49: 1268-1273
Cohen A.N and Carlton J.T 1995. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a U.S. estuary: a case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and delta. A Report for the US fish and wildlife service, Washington D.C.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Crust�ceos. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - crustaceans is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Crust%C3%A1ceos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Crust�ceos is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Crust%C3%A1ceos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Cripe, G.M., McKennedy Jr., C.L., Hoglund, M.D., and Harris, P.S. 2003. Effects of fenoxycarb exposure on complete larval development of the xanthid crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 125: 295-299.
Summary: This study uses Rhithropanopeus harrisii to test the effects of fenoxycarb, a juvenile control hormone analogue, on non-target crustacean species.
Demel K 1953. Nowy gatunek w faunie Baltyku. Kosmos 2: 105-106
Elkhorn Slough Research. Undated. Least wanted aquatic invaders: Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii). Elkhorn Slough National Estaurine Research Reserve.
Summary: This site offers a brief profile of the Harris mud crab with a short list of invaded areas (focusing on the Pacific coast of the US) and impacts.
Available from: http://www.elkhornslough.org/research/aquaticinvaders/aquatic10.htm [Accessed 3 December 2007].
Eno, N. C., A. Robin, and C.W.G. Sanderson. 1997. Non-native marine species in British waters: a review and directory. Joint Nature Conservation Committee Monkstone House, City Road Peterborough PE1 1JY UK.
Forward Jr., R.B., and Lohman, K.J. 1983. Control of egg hatching in the crab Rithropanopeus harrisii (Gould). Biology Bulletin. Vol. 165: 154-166.
Summary: This article documents the egg hatching process and life cycle of the Harris mud crab.
Garcia-Berthou, E., Boix, D. and Clavero, M. 2007. Non-indigenous animal species naturalized in Iberian inland waters. In: Gerardi, F. Biological invaders in inland waters: profiles, distribution, and threats. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands. pp.123-140
Summary: This book chapter examines introductions to the Iberian peninsula, with mention of Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
Available from: http://ciencies.udg.es/w3/EGarcia/papers/GarciaBerthou_etal_Gherardi_ed_book.pdf [Accessed 10 December 2007]
Gollasch, S. and Nehring, S. 2006. National checklist for aquatic alien species in Germany. Aquatic Invasions. Vol. 1, Issue 4: 245-269.
Summary: A checklist of alien aquatic species in Germany
Available from: http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2006/AI_2006_1_4_Gollasch_Nehring.pdf [Accessed 5 December 2007]
Goncalves, F. Ribeiro, R., and Soares, A. M.V.M. 1995. Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould), an American crab in the estuary of the Mondego River, Portugal. Journal of Crustacean Biology, Vol. 15, No. 4: 756-762.
Summary: An analysis of the seasonal and spatial occurrence and tidal abundance of larvae of R. harrisii in the estuary of the Mondego River, Portugal.
Grabowski, M. Jazdzewski, K., and Konopacka, A. 2005. Alien crustacea in Polish waters - Introductions and Decapoda. Oceanological and Hydrobiological Studies. Vol. 34, Supp.1: 43-61.
Summary: This paper presents the biogeography, history, and some ecological consequences of the introduction of alien decapod species in Poland, with reference to other European countries.
Iseda, Masatsugu; Michio Otani and Taeko Kimura., 2007. First Record of an Introduced Crab Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Crustacea: Brachyura: Panopeidae) in Japan. Japanese Journal of Benthology 62: 39-44 (2007)
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1841)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=98790 [Accessed 3 December 2007]
Jazdzewski K and Konopacka A 1993. Survey and distribution of Crustacea Malacostraca in Poland. Crustaceana. 65: 176-191
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC), undated. Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
Summary: This brief profile offers information concerning the introduction of the Harris mud crab to Britain.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-1710 [Accessed 14 December 2007]
Kalber Jr. F.A and Costlow Jr. J.D 1966. The ontogeny of osmoregulation and its neurosecretory control in the decapod crustacean, Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould). American Zoologist 6:221-229
Karpinsky, M.G., Shiganova, T.A., and Katunin, D.N. 2005. Introduced species. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 5, Part P: 175-190.
Summary: A discussion of introduced species, including Rhithropanopeus harrisii, and their impacts in the Caspian Sea.
Keith, D.E. undated. Occurrence of the Estuarine Mud Crab, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, in Texas Reservoirs
Summary: Information on the occurrence of R. harrisii in almost freshwater reservoirs in Texas.
Available from: http://www.tarleton.edu/~biology/MudCrab.html [Accessed May 29 2008]
Kinzelbach, R. 1995. Neozoans in European waters - Exemplifying the worldwide process of invasion and species mixing. Experientia. Vol. 51: 526- 538.
Summary: This article discusses worldwide loss of biodiversity due to invasive species, such as the Harris mud crab.
Lepp�koski, E. and Olenin, S. 2000. Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions. Vol. 2: 151-163.
Summary: This article discusses introductions of nonindigenous species to the Baltic Sea and provides a date for the discovery of Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
Makarov A.K 1939. Certain new elements in the composition of the fauna of the Black Sea Limans as an effect of maritime navigation. C.R. (Doklady) Adacemy of Sciences of the USSR 23: 819-822
Marchand J and Saudray Y 1971. Rhithropanopeus harrisii Gould tridentatus Maitland (Crustac� - D�capode. Brachyoure), dans le r�seau hydrographique de l ouest de 1 Europe en 1971. Bulletin de la Soci�t� Linn�enne de Normandie 102: 105-113
Milke, L.M., and Kennedy, V.S. 2001. Mud crabs (Xanthidae) in Chesapeake Bay: claw characteristics and predation on epifaunal bivalves. Invertebrate Biology. Vol. 120: 67-77.
Summary: A comparison of claw mechanical strength between R. harrisii and E. depressus in the Chesapeake Bay
Mizzan L and Zanella L 1996. First record of Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould, 1841) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthidae) in the Italian waters. Bolletino del Museo civico di Storio naturale di Venezia 46: 109-120
Nehring, Stefan., 2000. Zur Bestandssituation von Rhithropanopeous harrisii (Gould, 1841) in deutschen Gewassern: Die sukzessive Ausbreitung eines amerikanischen Neozoons (Crustacea: Decapoda: Panopeidae). Senckenbergiana maritima, 30 (3/6) 115-122 Frankfurt am main, 27.7.2000
North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS), Undated. Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
Summary: This database provides information about a few European introductions of the Harris mud crab.
Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/speciesInfo.asp?taxaID=966v [Accessed 14 December 2007]
Panov, V.E., Dgebuadze, Y.Y., Shiganova, A., Filippov, A.A., and Minchin, D. 2007. A risk assessment of biological invasions in the inland waterways of Europe: the Northern Invasion Corridor case study.
Summary: A discussion of introductions in Europe including R. harrisii
Payen G.G and Bonami J.R 1979. Mise en �vidence de particules d allure virale associ�es aux noyaux des cellules m�sodermiques de la zone germinative testiculaire du crabe Rhithropanopeus harrisii (Gould) (Brachyura, Xanthidae). Revue des Travaux de l Institut des P�ches Maritimes 43: 361-365
Perry, H. 2007. Rhithropanopeous harrisii. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database.
Summary: The Nonindigenous Aquatic Species database offers much information on the Harris mud crab and its introductions.
Availalble from:http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=197 [Accessed 10 December]
Petersen, C. 2006. Range expansion in the northeast Pacific by an estuary mud crab - a molecular study. Biological Invasions. Vol. 8: 565-576.
Summary: A genetic study with goals of infering the direction of range expansion and attempting to trace the source population for introductions of R. harrisii on the Pacific coast of the US.
Roche, D.G. and Torchin, M.E. 2007. Established population of the North American Harris mud crab, Rhithropanopeous harrisii (Gould, 1841) (Crustacea: Brachyura: Xanthidae) in the Panama Canal. Aquatic Invasions. Vol. 2., Issue 3: 155-161.
Summary: This source provides information on the invasion of R. harrisii in the Panama Canal and reviews previous introductions worldwide as well as reported impacts.
Available from: http://www.aquaticinvasions.ru/2007/AI_2007_2_3_Roche_Torchin.pdf [Accessed 14 December 2007]
Rodr�guez, G. and Su�rez, H. 2001. Anthropogenic dispersal of decapod crustaceans in aquatic environments. Interciencia. Vol. 26, No. 7: 282-288
Summary: Several decapod introductions are discussed in the article along with vectors of introduction.
Ruiz G.M, Carlton J.T, Grosholz E.D and Hines A.H 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by nonindigenous species: Mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoologist 37(6): 621-632
Ryan E.P 1956. Observations on the life histories and the distribution of the Xanthidae (mud crabs) of Chesapeake Bay. American Midland Naturalist. 56: 138-162
Saudray Y 1956. Pr�sence de Heteropanope tridentatus Maitl. Crustac� brachyoure dans le r�seau hydrographique normand. Bulletin de la Soci�t� Zoologique de France 81: 33-35
Schubert K 1936. Pilumnopeus tridentatus Maitland, eine neue Rundkrabbe in Deutschland. Zoologischer Anzeiger 116: 320-323
Shiganova, T.A., Musaeva, E.I., Pautova, L.A., and Bulgakova, Y.V. 2005. The problem of invaders in the Caspian Sea in the context of the findings of new zoo- and phytoplankton species from the Black Sea. Biology Bulletin. Vol. 32, No. 1: 65-74.
Summary: The authors of this article examine several introduced species in the Caspian Sea, including the Harris mud crab.
Wolff, W.J. 2005. Non-indigenous marine and estuarine species in The Netherlands. Zoologische Mededelingen. Vol. 79, No. 1: 1-116.
Summary: A review of non-indigenous aquatic species in the Netherlands.
Zaitsev Y and �zt�rk B 2001. Exotic species in the Aegean, Marmara, Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. Turkish Marine Research Foundation, Istanbul, Turkey. pp 125-126
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