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  • Patas monkey (Photo: Mila Zinkova, www.wikipedia.org)
  • A baby patas monkey (Photo: Chuckupd, www.wikipedia.org)
  • A baby playing (Photo: Chuckupd, www.wikipedia.org)
  • Patas monkey sitting (Photo: Alex Roberts, www.commons.wikimedia.org)
  • Erythrocebus patas (Photo: Yvonne A. de Jong, Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program, www.wildsolutions.nl)
  • Erythrocebus patas (Photo: Yvonne A. de Jong, Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program, www.wildsolutions.nl)
  • Erythrocebus patas (Photo: Yvonne A. de Jong, Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program, www.wildsolutions.nl)
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Common name
eastern patas monkey (English), husarapa (Swedish), huzaar aap (Dutch), patasapa (Swedish), patas monkey (French), mono patas (Spanish), red monkey (English), patas monkey (English)
Synonym
Simia rubra , Gmelin, 1788
Simia rufa , Wagner, 1839
Erythrocebus albigenus , Elliot, 1909
Simia ruber albo-fasciatus , Kerr, 1792
Erythrocebus formosus , Elliot, 1906
Cercopithecus kerstingi , Matschie, 1906
Erythrocebus langheldi , Matschie, 1905
Simia ruber nigro-fasciatus , Kerr, 1792
Cercopithecus poliophaeus , Heuglin, 1877
Erythrocebus zechi , Matschie, 1905
Erythrocebus patas villiersi , Dekeyser, 1950
Erythrocebus whitei , Hollister, 1910
Cercopithecus patas albosignatus , Matschie, 1912
Cercopithecus circumcinctus , Reichenbach, 1863
Cercopithecus patas poliomystax , Matschie, 1912
Cercopithecus patas sannio , Thomas, 1906
Similar species
Summary
Erythrocebus patas is a medium sized terrestrial monkey, native to sub-saharan Africa. Wild populations only rarely come into contact with humans. Their shy behaviour, low densities, cryptic pelage, and large home ranges make it hard to observe them in many parts of their natural range. In some parts of their native range, mainly in west Africa, E. patas frequently invade farms, consume produce and are considered pests. The patas monkey is internationally a popular laboratory animal, used for biomedical and behavioural research. Patas monkeys were intentionally released to the Islands of Cueva and Guayacan in Puerto Rico between 1971 and 1981 by the La Parguera Primate Facility. Between 1974-1981 individuals have gradually migrated from the Islands to mainland Puerto Rico and formed free ranging population groups. They are reported to forage in gardens, destroy crops and disturb traffic. The Puerto Rican Department of Natural Resources traps and kills, or translocates individuals in an attempt to control their population.
Species Description
Erythrocebus patas is a medium sized, distinctive, terrestrial primate, native to sub-saharan Africa. Sexual dimorphism is conspicuous with adult males measuring up to 87cm tall and weighing between 10 and 12.5kg on average; adult females are much smaller, averaging 49cm tall, and around 5-6 to 6.5kg in weight (Nakagawa, 2003; Fedigan, 1992). Adult males also have much larger canines than females and are sometimes described as being brighter in colour (Fedigan, 1992). The fur of the dorsum, cap, neck and tail are reddish-brown. The ventrum and limbs are grey-white in females and bright white in males. Face black, with white, grey or black nose. Cheeks white or grey. Males exhibit a bright blue scrotum. Hands and feet are prehensile with opposed thumbs. E. patas is adapted for life in open country, having slender bodies and long limbs suited for ground speed rather than arboreal movement. They are the fastest primate on land and may reach speeds of 55 km/h (Hall, 1965). Although quadrupedal, they assume a bipedal stance when alarmed.\r\n

E. patas occur in single-male, multi-female groups for most part of the year. Group size varies widely between 5 – 74 (Chism & Rowell, 1988). Extragroup males live solitary or in all-male groups (Harding & Olson, 1986). Multi-male influxes into heterosexual groups occur during the mating season (Hall, 1965; Harding & Olson, 1986; Struhsaker & Gartlan, 1970). Shy behaviour, low densities, cryptic pelage, and large home ranges makes it hard to observe them in many parts of their natural range (De Jong et al., 2008). In the past, patas monkeys rarely came into conflict with humans, but the growing human population (in Kenya for example) has forced farmers to exploit dryer areas, converting patas habitat into agricultural land (Isbell & Chism, 2007; De Jong et al., 2008). E. patas frequently invades farms, consume produce and are considered pests in some parts of their geographical range, mainly in west Africa. Once this primate looses its fear for humans it can act aggresively towards them when treatened. This can be potentially dangeruous due to disease transmission between primates and humans.

Notes
There are four proposed subspecies of Erythrocebus patas according to Hill (1966) and Kingdon (1997) (E. p. patas, E. p. pyrrhonotus, E. p. baumstarki, and E. p. villiersi), opposed to Isbell (in press), who recognises three subspecies (E. p. patas, E. p. pyrrhonotus, E. p. baumstarki), Dorst and Dandelot (1969), who recognised two subspecies (E. p. patas, E. p. pyrrhonotus) or none by Groves (2001, 2005) and Grubb et al. (2003).\r\n
E. p. patas occurs from Senegal to Chad, E. p. pyrrhonotus occurs from western Ethiopia to northern Uganda and west, northwest, central and south of Kenya (De Jong et al., 2008), E. p. baumstarki is restricted to central north Tanzania (De Jong et al., 2008; De Jong et al., 2009) and E.p. villiersi is restricted to the Aïr Massif in Niger (Dekeyser, 1950).
Lifecycle Stages
Erythrocebus patas have a birth interval of ca. 1 year. At birth, infants are black and a reddish coat emerges after about three months. For the first four to five months infants receive much attention and grooming. Infants are fully capable of feeding and transporting themselves by 12 months of age (Chism et al., 1984). Complete weaning only occurs when a new infant is born, usually at age one. Allomaternal caretaking by females promotes infant survival (Chism et al., 1984).
Uses
Patas monkeys are used as laboratory animals primarily for biomedical and behavioral research (González-Martínez, 1998).
Habitat Description
Erythrocebus patas inhabits savannah, woodland savannah and grass steppe with thicket clumps. They generally avoid dense vegetation like riverine vegetation and forests. E. patas travel long distances using the ground. When disturbed they will either flee using the ground or move into tall trees for safety. For their sleeping sites they require an area with tall trees. E. patas needs to drink daily (Struhsaker & Gartlan, 1970; Chism & Rowell, 1988; De Jong et al., 2008). In dry areas, or during the dry season, E. patas does not move far from permanent water sources (which can be man-made water sources; Enstam & Isbell, 2004; Isbell & Chism, 2007; De Jong et al., 2008). In their natural habitats, groups have large home ranges varying typically between 23-52 km², depending on their group size, food and water availability (Chism & Rowell, 1988; Enstam & Isbell, 2004; Hall, 1965).\r\n\r\n

The introduced population of E. patas in Puerto Rico occupies substantially smaller home ranges, varying from 3.72 km² to 15.39 km² (González-Martínez, 1998). González-Martínez (1998) suggests that ‘the resource availability of Puerto Rico is adequate to sustain high densities in a small home range while maintaining a group size structure similar to that found in the natural habitats.’ The Puerto Rican population exhibit territorial behavior, with groups having well established boundaries. Populations occurring in their natural habitats have typically large, highly overlapping home ranges (González-Martínez, 1998).

Reproduction
Sexual, polygenous groups, typically including a variable number of females and one male (Chism & Rowell, 1988; Hall, 1965). Females reach sexual maturity at 2.5-3 years and males reach sexual maturity at 4-4.5 years (Chism et al., 1984). Males leave their natal group around puberty (ca. 3 years; Hall, 1965, Chism et al., 1984, Nakagawa et al., 2003). All-male groups occur. Multi-male influxes into heterosexual groups occur during the mating season (Hall, 1965; Harding & Olson, 1986; Struhsaker & Gartlan, 1970). Males are promiscuous and can fertilize many females in a short period of time. Females need to be in their estrous cycle to be fertile and receptive to males. Their defined reproductive season takes place during the wet summer. Strong correlative findings indicate breeding is largely based on rainfall. After a gestation period that lasts ca. 170 days, females give birth to a single baby, usually every year (González-Martínez, 2004; Gron, 2006).
Nutrition
Erythrocebus patas are omnivorous primates. Their diet varies with changes in food availability due to the seasonality of its environment. E. patas primarily feeds on plant material (flowers, fruits, gum, seeds and leaves), insects, and animal material (vertebrates, birds’ eggs and nestlings; Isbell, 1998). They catch and eat lizards and fish. In Kenya and Tanzania E. patas are strongly associated with Acacia woodland (Chism & Rowell, 1988; Isbell, 1998; De Jong et al., 2008; De Jong et al., 2009; Isbell in press). The diet of a population studied on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya was found to be highly dependent on Acacia drepanolobium (feeding on the gum and ants that occupy the swollen thorns of this tree; Isbell, 1998). \r\n\r\n

In Puerto Rico E. patas movement is correlated to the occurrence of their most important food sources: Tamarindus indica, Melicoccus bijugatus, Mangifera indica, Prosopis juliflora, Leucaena leucocephala, and Bourrerria succulent. E. patas feeds most often on fruits, seeds or the seed pods of these trees or shubs. Other items in their diet in Puerto Rico are arthropods and human crops taken from agricultural plots (González-Martínez, 2004; Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007).

Pathway
E. patas is an internationally popular laboratory species, used for biomedical and behavioural research.

Principal source:
Isbell, L.A. and Chism, J. 2007. Distribution of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya, 1979- 2004. Am. J. Primatol. 2007. Vol. 69, No. 11: 1223-1235.
González-Martínez, J. 1998. The ecology of the introduced patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) population of southwestern Puerto Rico. Am J Primatol 1998; 45(4):351-363.
De Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M. & Nekaris, K.A. 2008. Distribution and conservation of the patas monkey Erythrocebus patas in Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 97: 83-102.
De Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M., Isbell, L.A. & Lewis, C. 2009. Decline in the geographical range of the southern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas baumstarki in Tanzania. Oryx 43: 267-274.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII), Felix A. Grana Raffucci, Technical Advisor, Puerto Rico Department of Natural & Environmental Resources & IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Yvonne A. de Jong, Eastern Africa Primate, Diversity and Conservation Program, Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Nanyuki, Kenya.

Publication date: 2007-11-21

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Erythrocebus patas. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1204 on 20-09-2017.

General Impacts
Erythrocebus patas (individuals originated from Nigeria) were intentionally released to the Islands of Cueva and Guayacan, in Puerto Rico between 1971 and 1981, by the La Parguera Primate Facility. Between 1974-1981 individuals have gradually migrated from the Islands to mainland Puerto Rico and formed free ranging population groups (González-Martínez, 1998). In 1993 the population size on the mainland of Puerto Rico was estimated to be 120 individuals (González-Martínez, 1998). In 2006 the estimated population size was between 514 to 621 individuals (Massanet & Chism, 2008). The rapid expansion of the E. patas population in Puerto Rico is due to factors such as lack of non-human predators and abundant resources according to Massanet and Chism (2008).

In Puerto Rico, E. patas is considered a pest on various levels. They frequently invade fruit farms and raid crops. Their size, strength, and lack of fear for humans renders them a potential threat to humans and domestic animals. They may carry diseases that can be passed on to humans. Additionally, they are voracious omnivores and may have an impact on populations of native plants and small animals (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007). There is not enough information about their role as predators on the local avifauna but it is likely that bird species in the Sierra, including the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Puerto Rican nightjar (see Caprimulgus noctitherus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the 'Endangered (EN)' yellow-shouldered blackbird (see Agelaius xanthomus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), could suffer from nest predation by exotic species such as E. patas (Aukema et al., 2006).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Restrictions on the importation of Erythrocebus patas, as well as suitable enclosures, can prevent their establishment in new locations. Trade and sale of all primates is restricted in Puerto Rico (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007).\r\n

Physical: An effort to find an efficient way of eradicating wild populations of patas monkeys in Puerto Rico is underway (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Erythrocebus patas
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • benin
  • burkina faso
  • cameroon
  • central african republic
  • chad
  • congo, the democratic republic of the
  • cote d'ivoire
  • ethiopia
  • gambia
  • ghana
  • guinea
  • guinea-bissau
  • kenya
  • mali
  • mauritania
  • niger
  • nigeria
  • senegal
  • sierra leone
  • sudan
  • tanzania, united republic of
  • togo
  • uganda
Informations on Erythrocebus patas has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Erythrocebus patas in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Erythrocebus patas (individuals originated from Nigeria) were intentionally released to the Islands of Cueva and Guayacan, in Puerto Rico between 1971 and 1981, by the La Parguera Primate Facility. Between 1974-1981 individuals have gradually migrated from the Islands to mainland Puerto Rico and formed free ranging population groups (González-Martínez, 1998). In 1993 the population size on the mainland of Puerto Rico was estimated to be 120 individuals (González-Martínez, 1998). In 2006 the estimated population size was between 514 to 621 individuals (Massanet & Chism, 2008). The rapid expansion of the E. patas population in Puerto Rico is due to factors such as lack of non-human predators and abundant resources according to Massanet and Chism (2008).

In Puerto Rico, E. patas is considered a pest on various levels. They frequently invade fruit farms and raid crops. Their size, strength, and lack of fear for humans renders them a potential threat to humans and domestic animals. They may carry diseases that can be passed on to humans. Additionally, they are voracious omnivores and may have an impact on populations of native plants and small animals (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007). There is not enough information about their role as predators on the local avifauna but it is likely that bird species in the Sierra, including the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' Puerto Rican nightjar (see Caprimulgus noctitherus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) and the 'Endangered (EN)' yellow-shouldered blackbird (see Agelaius xanthomus in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species), could suffer from nest predation by exotic species such as E. patas (Aukema et al., 2006).

Red List assessed species 2: EN = 2;
View more species View less species
Locations
PUERTO RICO
Mechanism
[1] Predation
[1] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [1] Human health
Management information
Preventative measures: Restrictions on the importation of Erythrocebus patas, as well as suitable enclosures, can prevent their establishment in new locations. Trade and sale of all primates is restricted in Puerto Rico (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007).\r\n

Physical: An effort to find an efficient way of eradicating wild populations of patas monkeys in Puerto Rico is underway (Felix Grana., pers.comm., November 2007).

Locations
AUSTRALIA
PUERTO RICO
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Bibliography
45 references found for Erythrocebus patas

Managment information
Long, L. John., 2003. Introduced Mammals of the World: Their History, Distribution and Influence. CSIRO Publication. A Sample
Summary: Available from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/samples/IntroducedMammalsSample.pdf [Accessed 2008 March 24].
National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII)., 2002. Non-native mammals in the U.S. and Canada. NBII Invasive Species Information Node.
Summary: Available from: http://invasivespecies.nbii.gov/speciesinfo/mammal_list.html [Accessed 2008 March 24].
Vertebrate Pests Committee (VPC)., 2006. List of Exotic Vertebrate Animals in Australia
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/feral_documents/VPCListJan06.pdf [Accessed 2008 March 24].
General information
Aukema, J.E., Carlo, T.A. Tossas, A.G. & Anad�n-Irizarry, V. 2006. A Call to Protect Sierra Bermeja for Future Generations. Sociedad Ornitol�gica Puertorrique�a, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
Bonadio, C. 2000. Erythrocebus patas (on-line). Animal Diversity Web.
Summary: Informative profile on Erythrocebus patas.
Available from: http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Erythrocebus_patas.html [Accessed 23 May 2008].
Cawthon Lang KA. 2005 July 20. Primate Factsheets: Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology.
Summary: Available from: http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/rhesus_macaque [Accessed 2008 March 24].
Chism, J., Olson, D., & Rowell, T. 1984. Life history patterns of female Patas Monkeys. In: M.D. Small (Ed.). Female Primates: Studies by Women Primatologists (pp. 175-190). New York: Alan R. Liss.
Chism, J. & Rowell, T. E. 1988. The natural history of Patas Monkeys. In: A. Gautier-Hion, F. Bourli�re, J.-P. Gautier, & J. Kingdon (Eds.). A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons (pp. 412-438). New York: Cambridge University Press.
De Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M., Isbell, L.A. & Lewis, C. 2009. Decline in the geographical range of the southern patas monkey Erythrocebus patas baumstarki in Tanzania. Oryx 43: 267-274.
De Jong, Y.A., Butynski, T.M. & Nekaris, K.A. 2008. Distribution and conservation of the patas monkey Erythrocebus patas in Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 97: 83-102.
Dekeyser, P.L. 1950. Contribution � l��tude de l�A�r. Mammif�res. M�m. Bulletin de l Institut Fran�ais d Afrique Noire 10: 388-455.
Enstam, K.L. and Isbell, L.A. 2004. Microhabitat preference and vertical use of space by patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure. Folia Primatol. (Basel). Vol. 75, No. 2: 70-84.
Summary: Abstract only
Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15010579?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=4&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed [Accessed 23 May 2008].
Enstam, K.L. & Isbell, L.A. 2004. Microhabitat preferences and vertical use of space by Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in relation to predation risk and habitat structure. Folia Primatologica 75: 70-84.
Fedigan, L.M. 1992. Primate paradigms: sex roles and social bonds. London: The University of Chicago Press.
Fouquet, Antoine.; Measey, G. John., 2006. Plotting the course of an African clawed frog invasion in Western France. Animal Biology, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 95-102 (2006)
Gonz�lez-Mart�nez, J. 1998. The ecology of the introduced patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) population of southwestern Puerto Rico. Am. J. Primatol. 1998; 45(4):351-363
Summary: Good biological and distribution information.
Gonz�lez-Mart�nez, J. 2004. The introduced free-ranging rhesus and patas monkey populations of southwestern Puerto Rico. P. R. Health Sci. J. Vol. 23, No. 1: 39-46.
Summary: Abstract only.
Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15125218?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=5&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed [Accessed 22 May 2008]
Gron K.J. 2006 December 18. Primate Factsheets: Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) Taxonomy, Morphology, & Ecology.
Summary: Available from: http://pin.primate.wisc.edu/factsheets/entry/patas_monkey [Accessed 2008 March 24].
Groves, C. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. New York: Smithsonian Institution Press, New York.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In D.E. Wilson & D.M. Reeder (Eds.). Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference. (pp. 111-184). United States of America: The John Hopkins University Press.
Grubb, P., Butynski, T.M., Oates, J.F., Bearder, S.K., Disotell, T.R., Groves, C.P., & Struhsaker, T.T. 2003. Assessment of the diversity of African primates. International Journal of Primatology 24: 1301-1357.
Hall, K.R.L. 1965. Behavior and ecology of the wild Patas Monkey, Erythrocebus patas, in Uganda. Journal of Zoology 148: 15-87.
Harding, R.S O. & Olson, D.K. 1986. Patterns of mating among male Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). American Journal of Primatology 11: 343-358.
Hill, W.C.O. 1966. Primates. Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Vol. VI, Catarrhini Cercopithecoidea Cercopithecinae. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Isbell, L.A. 1998. Diet for a small primate: insectivory and gummivory in the (large) patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas pyrrhonotus) Am. J. Primatol. 1998. Vol. 45, No. 4: 381-398.
Summary: Abstract only.
Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9702283?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=2&log$=relatedarticles&logdbfrom=pubmed [Accessed 22 May 2008].
Isbell, L.A. and Chism, J. 2007. Distribution of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in Laikipia, Kenya, 1979- 2004. Am. J. Primatol. 2007. Vol. 69, No. 11: 1223-1235.
Summary: This study examines a populations of patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya.
Available from: http://tpyoung.ucdavis.edu/publications/2007IsbellChismAJP.pdf [Accessed 23 May 2008].
Isbell, L.A. (in press). Patas monkey Erythrocebus patas. In: (T.M. Butynski, J. Kingdon & J. Kalina (Eds.). The Mammals of Africa: Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2007. Online Database Erythrocebus patas (Schreber, 1775)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=573015 [Accessed 18 November 2007]
Jensen Kristen., 2002. Free Ranging Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and Herpesvirus B: Public health risks in Puerto Rico September 18, 2002 Senior Seminar
Kepler, Cameron B. 1978. The Breeding Ecology of Sea Birds on Monito Island, Puerto Rico. The Condor, Vol. 80, No. 1. (Spring, 1978), pp. 72-87.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. New York: Academic Press.
Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Erythrocebus patas. In: IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2.
Summary: Available from http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/8073/0 [Accessed 16 Febuary, 2010]
Lardner, S., Larner, K. 2007. A Guide to the Control Over the Possession, Trade and Movement of Declared Pest Animals. State of Victoria Department of Primary Industries.
Summary: A report that places certain animals in categories and breaks down the regulations for each category in terms of relocation, personal possession and country wide permissions.
Lernould, J.M. 1988. Classification and geographical distribution of guenons: a review. A. In: Gautier-Hion, F. Bourli�re, J.-P. Gautier, & J. Kingdon (Eds.). A Primate Radiation: Evolutionary Biology of the African Guenons (pp. 54-78). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Massanet, M. & Chism, J. 2008. The abundance, distribution and habitat use of the introduced patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) population in Puerto Rico. American Society of Primatologists Conference.
McCormack, Gerald., 2007. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust, Rarotonga.
Summary: Available from: http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org [Accessed 11 May, 2010].
Nakagawa, N. 2003. Difference in food selection between patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and tantalus monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops tantalus) in Kala Maloue National Park, Cameroon, in relation to nutrient content. Primates 44: 3-11.
Nakagawa, N., Ohsawa, H., & Muroyama, Y. 2003. Life history parameters of a wild group of West African Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas patas). Primates 44: 281-290.
Struhsaker, T. T. & Gartlan, J. S. 1970. Observations on the behaviour and ecology of the Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus patas) in the Waza Reserve, Cameroon. Journal of Zoology (London) 161: 49-63.
Taub D.M; Mehlman P., 1989. Development of the Morgan Island rhesus monkey colony.. P R Health Sci J. 1989 Apr;8(1):159-69.
UNEP-WCMC Species Database, undated. Erythrocebus patas (Schreber, 1775)
Summary: Available from: http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?displaylanguage=eng&source=animals&Genus=Erythrocebus&Species=patas&Country=&tabname=names [Accessed 18 November 2007]
Wolfheim, J.H. 1983. Primates of the World: Distribution, Abundance, and Conservation. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Erythrocebus patas
de Jong,
Yvonne A.
Organization:
Eastern Africa Primate Diversity and Conservation Program
Address:
P.O. Box 149, 10400 Nanyuki, Kenya
Phone:
Fax: