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Common name
pine armoured scale (English), pine needle hemiberlesian scale (English), pine-needle scale insect (English), pine greedy scale (English)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Hemiberlesia pitysophila (pine-needle scale insect) is a damaging pest of pine tree plantations, especially when introduced in the absence of natural enemies.
Species Description
The scale cover of adult female the pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) in life is oval, convex, dirty white to mid-brown, with buff to red-brown submarginal exuviae that may be paler or darker than the secreted scale. The scale cover of male has not been documented (Watson Undated).
Habitat Description
The pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) has been recorded from the needles of trees belonging to the plant family Pinaceae, genus Pinus (Takagi 1969, Tao 1999, in Watson Undated). Hosts include: Pinus elliotii, P. massoniana and P. thunbergii (Watson Undated). Pan and colleagues (1989) found that H. pitysophila had 5 overlapping generations/year in China. Temperature was the main factor influencing the population growth and forest decline, and pest mortality increased when the temperature was above 23°C or lower than 18°C. Dense stands favoured the incidence and development of the pest (Watson Undated). In China, Tong and colleagues (1988) found that air temperature was the main influence on population size, with 19.5°C averaged over 10 days being the optimum for the growth and development of the insect, but monthly precipitation over 100mm was detrimental to reproduction (Watson Undated).
Pathway
Dispersal of sessile adults and eggs occurs through human transport of infested plant material (Watson Undated).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Forestry Division (Council Of Agriculture) Taiwan

Review: Expert review underway

Publication date: 2007-10-01

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2021) Species profile: Hemiberlesia pitysophila. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1202 on 28-09-2021.

General Impacts
The pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) is a damaging pest of pine tree plantations, especially when introduced in the absence of natural enemies (Watson Undated). Plants are affected in the following stages: vegetative growing, flowering and fruiting stages and plant parts affected are the needles (Watson Undated). Heavy infestations of H. pitysophila can kill pine trees (Watson Undated).
Management Info
Preventative measures: Detection and inspection methods: Examine needles of the hosts listed above, for oval, convex, dirty white to mid-brown scale covers, each with buff to red-brown submarginal exuviae that may be paler or darker than the secreted part of the scale. Microscopic examination of slide-mounted adult females is required for authoritative identification to species (Watson Undated). International Quarantine: Planting material of Pinus species should not be transported from China or Japan (where this species is a known pest) to other countries without thorough phytosanitary precautions.

Chemical: Studies on chemical control of the pine armoured scale seriously infests pine trees were conducted during 1988 and 1989 in Guangdong Province, China. Oil emulsion, formulated by mixing rubber tree seed oil (or chinaberry seed oil) with the diesel oil at a ratio of 3:7 (with an emulsifier) was highly effective. Ground spray application showed that at concentration of 5% the product gave a control of up to 90-100%. In aerial spray application it was shown that this mixture when diluted with water at 1:4 equivalent to 75kg/ha gave a control efficiency above 70%, more potent than the conventional pine resin-diesel oil mixture commonly used in Hui-Ding County, Guangdong Province and other places. The product was safe for Encarsia sp. and Aphytis sp., hymenopterous parasites as the most important natural enemies of the pine armoured scale and proved to have no harmful effect on the environment. Furthermore, the formulation can be easily prepared as an emulsion. It is suggested that the product could be widely used for the effective control of the pine armoured scale and other insects infesting the pine trees (Chiu et al. 1993).

Results of field experiments conducted in Luoyang, China, to study the control effects of 6 compound pesticides on H. pitysophila in a forest environment, showed that all the tested pesticides were effective in controlling the scale. Applied singularly, chlorpyrifos mixed with methidathion at a ratio of 11:25 had a satisfactory control effect and a continuous effect at the concentration of 400-800 in a forest environment. Chlorpyrifos mixed with buprofezin at the ratio of 11:20, at the concentration of 400-800, and acetamiprid mixed with imidacloprid at the ratio of 1:1 at the concentration 1:3000 had relatively high control effect (English summary Hu et al. 2006).

Biological: Natural enemies of Hemiberlesia pitysophila are as follows: parasitoids - Coccobius azumai (attacks adult females in Japan (Okinawa) and introduced in China (Guangdong)), Encarsia amicula (China), E. citrina (China), Marietta carnesi (China); predators - Anystis baccarum (China); pathogens - Cladosporium cladosporioides (China) (Watson Undated). Cladosporium cladosporioides, isolated from a species of Kermes, was used to control H. pitysophila. The results showed that the mortality rate of the insects induced by the fungus was up to 38.9% on an average in laboratory tests, and 20-57% in field tests (Pan et al. 1989). In a survey in 15 counties of Guangdong Province, China, 12 species of parasitoid wasps of the diaspidid H. pitysophila were found. Of these, Encarsia citrina, E. amicula and Marietta carnesi were the most widely distributed and Encarsia spp. were the most numerous. The parasitoid complex has been unable to control the diaspidid effectively, as the rates of parasitism are low (Liang and Chen 1990).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Hemiberlesia pitysophila
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
Informations on Hemiberlesia pitysophila has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Hemiberlesia pitysophila in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The pine-needle scale insect (Hemiberlesia pitysophila) is a damaging pest of pine tree plantations, especially when introduced in the absence of natural enemies (Watson Undated). Plants are affected in the following stages: vegetative growing, flowering and fruiting stages and plant parts affected are the needles (Watson Undated). Heavy infestations of H. pitysophila can kill pine trees (Watson Undated).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CHINA
JAPAN
MACAO
Mechanism
[3] Parasitism
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of hydrology/water regulation, purification and quality /soil moisture
[4] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage to agriculture
  • [3] Damage to forestry
Management information
Preventative measures: Detection and inspection methods: Examine needles of the hosts listed above, for oval, convex, dirty white to mid-brown scale covers, each with buff to red-brown submarginal exuviae that may be paler or darker than the secreted part of the scale. Microscopic examination of slide-mounted adult females is required for authoritative identification to species (Watson Undated). International Quarantine: Planting material of Pinus species should not be transported from China or Japan (where this species is a known pest) to other countries without thorough phytosanitary precautions.

Chemical: Studies on chemical control of the pine armoured scale seriously infests pine trees were conducted during 1988 and 1989 in Guangdong Province, China. Oil emulsion, formulated by mixing rubber tree seed oil (or chinaberry seed oil) with the diesel oil at a ratio of 3:7 (with an emulsifier) was highly effective. Ground spray application showed that at concentration of 5% the product gave a control of up to 90-100%. In aerial spray application it was shown that this mixture when diluted with water at 1:4 equivalent to 75kg/ha gave a control efficiency above 70%, more potent than the conventional pine resin-diesel oil mixture commonly used in Hui-Ding County, Guangdong Province and other places. The product was safe for Encarsia sp. and Aphytis sp., hymenopterous parasites as the most important natural enemies of the pine armoured scale and proved to have no harmful effect on the environment. Furthermore, the formulation can be easily prepared as an emulsion. It is suggested that the product could be widely used for the effective control of the pine armoured scale and other insects infesting the pine trees (Chiu et al. 1993).

Results of field experiments conducted in Luoyang, China, to study the control effects of 6 compound pesticides on H. pitysophila in a forest environment, showed that all the tested pesticides were effective in controlling the scale. Applied singularly, chlorpyrifos mixed with methidathion at a ratio of 11:25 had a satisfactory control effect and a continuous effect at the concentration of 400-800 in a forest environment. Chlorpyrifos mixed with buprofezin at the ratio of 11:20, at the concentration of 400-800, and acetamiprid mixed with imidacloprid at the ratio of 1:1 at the concentration 1:3000 had relatively high control effect (English summary Hu et al. 2006).

Biological: Natural enemies of Hemiberlesia pitysophila are as follows: parasitoids - Coccobius azumai (attacks adult females in Japan (Okinawa) and introduced in China (Guangdong)), Encarsia amicula (China), E. citrina (China), Marietta carnesi (China); predators - Anystis baccarum (China); pathogens - Cladosporium cladosporioides (China) (Watson Undated). Cladosporium cladosporioides, isolated from a species of Kermes, was used to control H. pitysophila. The results showed that the mortality rate of the insects induced by the fungus was up to 38.9% on an average in laboratory tests, and 20-57% in field tests (Pan et al. 1989). In a survey in 15 counties of Guangdong Province, China, 12 species of parasitoid wasps of the diaspidid H. pitysophila were found. Of these, Encarsia citrina, E. amicula and Marietta carnesi were the most widely distributed and Encarsia spp. were the most numerous. The parasitoid complex has been unable to control the diaspidid effectively, as the rates of parasitism are low (Liang and Chen 1990).

Locations
Management Category
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
14 references found for Hemiberlesia pitysophila

Management information
BGCI. 2006. The Botanic Gardens of Macau, Servi�os de Zonas Verdes e Jardins 3(2).
Summary: A reference to the ecological damage caused by H. pitysophila in Macau.
Chiu, Shin-Foon, Liu, Xiu-Qiong, Huang, Zhang-Xin, Chen, Wen-Kui, Wei, Xi-Kui and Wen, Fu-Yi. 1993. The chemical control of the pine armoured scale Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi, Acta Entomologica Sinica. 36(2): 177-184.
Summary: A study on the use of oil emulsions to control H. pitysophila in Chinese forests.
Ding Jianqing and Xie Yan. 1996. The mechanism of biological invasion and the management strategy, in: Conserving China s Biodiversity II (PETER Johan Schei, WANG Sung and XIE Yan eds.). China Environmental Science Press. Beijing. 125-156p.
Summary: Review of invasive species in China and their management.
Gu, M., Wang, B., Li, Y., Yang, Z., Qiu, J., Chen, P., Chen, Z., Lian, J., Weng, J. 1990. Relationship between the ecological factors and the damage level of Pinus-Massoniana forest attacked by Hemiberlesia pitysophila, Forest Research 3(6): 562-567.
Summary: Ecological study of H. pitysophila assessing its impact in Chinese forest ecosystems.
Hu, Y.H., Huang, Z.Y., Cui, L.K., Chen, S.L. & Liu, X. 2006. [A study on control effect of field test on Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi.]. (In Chinese with summary in English.) Acta Agriculturae Zhejiangensis 28(3): 364-367.
Liang, G.Q. and Chen, Z.Y. 1990. A preliminary survey of parasitoid wasps of Hemiberlesia pitysophila, Natural Enemies of Insects 12(1): 1-6, 20.
Summary: A study on the biological control of H. pitysophila.
Liebhold, A.M., Macdonald, W.L., Bergdahl, D. and Mastro, V.C. 1995. Invasion by Exotic Forest Pests: A Threat to Forest Ecosystems, Forest Science Monographs 30. p 14.
Summary: A brief reference to forestry management with respect to H. pitysophila.
Pan, W.Y., Chen, S.L, Lian, J.H., Qiu, H.Z. and Lan, G. 1989. A preliminary report on control of Hemiberlesia pitysophila using Cladosporium cladosporioides, Forest Pest and Disease 3: 22-23.
Summary: A study on the biological control of H. pitysophila.
State Environmental Protection Administration of China. Undated. CBD National Report.
Summary: A report of alien pest management in China.
Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/cn/cn-nr-fe-en.doc [Accessed 20th October 2007]
Wang, Z.H., Wang Zhu Hong, Huang, J., Huang Jian, Liang, Z.S., Liang Zhi Sheng, Lian Bing Xian, Lin Qing Yuan, Zhong Jing Hui. 2004. Introduction and application of Coccobius azumai Tachikawa (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), Journal of Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University (Natural Science Edition) 33(3): 313-317.
Summary: A study on the biological control of H. pitysophila in Japanese forests.
General information
Gu, D., Murakami, Y. 1990. Ecological studies on the pine needle Hemiberlesian scale Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi Homoptera:Diaspididae and its parasitoid Coccobius azumai Tachikawa Hymenoptera:Aphelinida, Science Bulletin of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University 45 (1-2): 31-36.
Summary: Ecological study of H. pitysophila in Japan.
Mingyang, L. and Haigen, X. 2005. Indirect Economic Losses Associated with Alien Invasive Species to Forest Ecological System in China, Electronic Journal of Biology 1(1): 14-16.
Summary: The economic impact of various forestry pests in China.
Available from: http://www.ejbio.com/pps/14.pdf [Accessed 20th October 2007]
State Environmental Protection Administration of China. 2001. China s Second National Report on Implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. China Environmental Science Press: Beijing.
Summary: A report of the pest status of H. cunea.
Available from: http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/cn/cn-nr-02-en.pdf [Accessed 20th October 2007]
Watson, G.W. Undated. Arthropods of Economic Importance: Hemiberlesia pitysophila. Natural History Museum: London.
Summary: An overview of information pertaining to the invasive H. pitysophila.
Available from: http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/BIS/diaspididae.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=126 [Accessed 20th October 2007]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Hemiberlesia pitysophila
Hemiberlesia pitysophila
pine armoured scale, pine needle hemiberlesian scale, pine-needle scale insect, pine greedy scale
Date assessed
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Recommended citation
(2021). Hemiberlesia pitysophila. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).