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  • Male Cercopagis pengoi: anterior region (on left) and complete body with caudal process (on right) (Photo: Dr. Igor Grigorovich, University of Windsor, Canada)
  • Sexually produced ossiani morph (on the right) and parthenogenetically  produced pengoi morph (on the left) produced morphs of Cercopagis pengoi  (Photo: Dr. Igor Grigorovich, University of Windsor, Canada)
  • Sexual female Cecopagis pengoi with a resting egg: anterior region (on the left) and complete body with caudal process (on the right) (Photo: Dr. Igor Grigorovich, University of Windsor, Canada)
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Common name
Kaspischer Wasserfloh (German), cercopag (Russian), fishhook waterflea (English), r��vtoiduline vesikirp (Estonian), petovesikirppu (Finnish), rovvattenloppa (Swedish), tserkopag (Russian)
Synonym
Cercopagis (Apagis) ossiani , (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi 1968)
Similar species
Bythotrephes longimanus
Summary
Cercopagis pengoi is a water flea native to the Ponto-Aralo-Caspian basin in South Eastern Europe, at the meeting point of the Middle East, Europe and Asia. It has spread from its native range and become invasive in some waterways of Eastern Europe and in the Baltic Sea. It has been introduced to the Great Lakes of North America, quickly becoming established and is now increasing its range and abundance. Cercopagis pengoi is a voracious predator and may compete with other planktivores. Through this competition, C. pengoi has the potential to affect the abundance and condition of zooplanktivorous fish and fish larvae. It also interferes with fisheries by clogging nets and fishing gear.
Species Description
The most pronounced parts of the body are the head, the second pair of antenna, four pairs of thoracic legs (thoracopodsI-IV), abdomen, caudal process, and a brood pouch in females. The head is essentially composed of a large single eye, where the amount of black pigment makes less than one half of the diameter of the eye. The second antenna is a large appendage containing of two branches - the endopod and exopod. The first pair of thoracic legs (thoracopods I) are 3-4 times longer than the second ones. Abdomen length is equal to the length of the rest of the body, and spines are large, equal to 2-3 diameters of caudal process (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi & Rivier, 1987; Rivier 1998). Parthenogenic females of the first generation of C. pengoi that hatch from resting eggs are morphologically distinct from parthenogenic females of following generations. They have a short straight caudal spine unlike the characteristically looped caudal spine of parthenogenically-produced individuals (Simm & Ojaveer 1999). C. pengoi possesses a high degree of regional variability in morphology. Largest adult parthenogenic females are found in the Baltic Sea (mean body length 2.0 mm), while those in the Caspian Sea and in Lake Ontario are smaller (1.7 and 1.4 mm, respectively). Caudal process is largest in the instar III parthenogenic females from the Baltic Sea (mean length 9.6 mm), medium in Lake Ontario (8.6 mm), and shortest in females from the Caspian Sea (7.5 mm). However, relative to body length, the length of caudal process is largest in populations from Lake Ontario (mean 5.9 mm), medium in the Baltic (4.9 mm), and smallest in the Caspian populations (4.3 mm) (Grigorovich et al. 2000).
Notes
The paucity of ecological studies on C. pengoi is in part due to the difficulties in handling and culturing Cercopagis as this hampers experimental studies.
Lifecycle Stages
Female, both parthenogenic and gametogenic, and male Cercopagis pengoi possess 3 life-history stages or instars, which differ by number of spines, or barbs, on the caudal process. At each molt, the animal sheds its exoskeleton to the base of the caudal process. A new pair of proximal barbs and the growth of an intercalary segment are inserted between the existing tail spine and the body. The newborn parthenogenic females (instar I) have one pair of barbs on the caudal process, compact oval embryos in the brood pouch without a pointed apex. The second stage (instar II) has two pairs of barbs and the mature stage (instar III) of the parthenogenic female has a large brood pouch with a pointed apex housing embryos. In males at this stage paired penes behind the last thoracic legs and a toothed hook on the first pair of legs are developed (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi & Rivier, 1987; Rivier 1998). Parthenogenic females of the first generation of C. pengoi proceed through 3 moult yielding 4 pairs of proximal barbs on the caudal process unlike the females of following generations that undergo 2 molts to reach adulthood (Simm & Ojaveer 1999).
Uses
In the Baltic and in the Great Lakes, zooplanktivorous fish and mysids are reported to prey on C. pengoi, implying that it has become a new food source. Its importance increases in larger fish (Antsulevich and Välipakka 2000; Gorokhova et al. 2004; Ojaveer et al. 2004; Bushnoe et al. 2003) and in actively migrating mysids (Gorokhova and Lehtiniemi 2007).
Habitat Description
Cercopagis pengoi is a euryhaline and eurythermic, having a wide tolerance to salinity temperatures. It occurs in both brackish, up to 17%, and fresh waters, as well as temperatures of 3 – 38 ºC (c.f. Gorokhova et al. 2000). However, highest population densities are found at summer temperatures (16 – 26 ºC) and at salinities of up to 10% (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi & Rivier, 1987; Rivier, 1998). Although some specimens may be found at temperatures of 10 °C it generally requires temperatures of 15 °C or higher to establish a significant population. It also resides above the thermocline in stratified waters in warmer, more active waters (Pollumae & Valjataga, 2004). Both in the Caspian Sea (Rivier, 1998) and Lake Ontario (Ojaveer et al. 2001) C. pengoi abundance increases with distance from shore, suggesting that this is a typical pelagic species, which live in the open sea, away from the littoral zone.
Reproduction
As many other cladocerans, Cercopagis pengoi is a cyclic parthenogen. It reproduces parthenogenically during the summer and gametogenically later in the year. The parthenogenically-produced young develop in a fluid-filled dorsal brood pouch that ruptures to release the young. In late summer and autumn, parthenogenic females produce eggs that develop into males and gametogenic females, which copulate. Gametogenic reproduction results in resting eggs, which are released when the brood pouch ruptures, and overwinter in the sediment. After a refractory period, development proceeds and neonates hatch in spring-summer, depending on local temperatures, to re-found the population (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier 1987; Rivier 1998). Sexual females are reproductive only at instars II and III, producing 1-4 resting eggs, while parthenogenic females produce between 1 and 24 embryos; average clutch size decreases gradually from instar I to instar III and from early to late stage of embryonic development (Grigorovich et al. 2000). The embryonic development time of parthenogenic Cercopagis in the Baltic Sea is 3.2 d and generation time is 14.7 d, which implies that during summer season there could be 5-7 generations, depending on temperature (Svensson and Gorokhova 2007).
Nutrition
Cercopagis pengoi is a generalist feeder which preys on various species of cladocerans, copepods, rotifers, i.e., both micro- and mesozooplankton (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi 1968; Laxson et al. 2003; Gorokhova et al. 2005; Lehtiniemi and Linden 2006; Pichlova-Ptacnikova and Vanderploeg 2009). It is able to capture and handle prey about its own body size to those seventeen times smaller. Cercopagids capture their prey with the thoracopods I, retain it by thoracopods II-IV, crush its cuticle by mandibles, and suck the prey body contents (Mordukhai-Boltovskoi 1968; Mordukhai-Boltovskoi and Rivier 1987).
Pathway

Principal source: Birnbaum, C. (2006): NOBANIS – Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet – Cercopagis pengoi. – From: Online Database of the North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species – NOBANIS www.nobanis.org
Mordukhai-Boltovskoi & Rivier, 1987 Cercopagis pengoi - fishhook waterflea

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Elena Gorokhova, Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Sweden

Publication date: 2010-09-06

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Cercopagis pengoi. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=118 on 25-08-2016.

General Impacts
Cercopagis pengoi preys on native zooplankton, may compete with native zooplanktivores, fouls fishing nets and other equipment, and may cause an array of other ecological impacts to aquatic systems. C. pengoi affects resident zooplankton communities by selective predation in Lake Ontario (Benoit et al. 2002); Gulf of Riga (Ojaveer et al. 1999, 2004); Gulf of Finland (Uitto et al. 1999; Lehtiniemi & Gorokhova 2008). Its invasion and populations in the Baltic Sea correlate to significant declines in small, cladoceran prey species Bosmina coregoni maritime, Evadne nordmanni, and Pleopsis polyphemoides (Kotta et al. 2006). A similar decrease in the abundance of copepods, including key species Eurytemora affinis, in the Gulf of Finland is believed to be caused by C. pengoi as well (Lehtiniemi & Gorokhova 2008). It is also a potential competitor with young stages of planktivorous fish for herbivorous zooplankton (Vanderploeg et al. 2002). Such changes in ecology may result in increased competition among zooplanktivores, decreased grazing pressure on phytoplankton, enhanced algal blooms, and major changes to higher trophic levels.\r\n

Additionally, this large cladoceran tends to attach to fishing gears, clogs nets and trawls, causing problems and ultimate economic losses for fishermen. Reports of their fouling and costly impacts have come from the Gulf of Finland, the Neva Estuary, the Archipelago Sea, the Northern Bothnian Sea, and on the coasts of Lithuania (Birnbaum 2006 and references therein). Its effects on the food-web and energy transfer in lower trophic levels are likely to cause problems with fish stocks (E. Gorokhova pers. comm., in Birnbaum 2006; Ojaveer et al. 2001). Anecdotal evidence suggests that it can cause allergic reactions in fisherman who clean remains from nets (Leppäkoski & Olenin 2000; ICES 2002).

Management Info
There is currently no known method of eradication or control for Cercopagis pengoi. Prevention of establishment and spread are the only means of management. Most probably, all trans-oceanic introductions of C. pengoi have resulted from the dumping of ship ballast water containing adults or eggs in new locations. Strengthening and improving existing ballast water regulations and promoting awareness of C. pengoi would therefore help in preventing the spread (Birnbaum, 2006). Prompted by the explosive increase of ship-borne exotic species in the Great Lakes, the USA implemented a regulation that requires inbound vessels to exchange freshwater/estuarine ballast with highly saline oceanic water in May 1993 (Ricciardi and MacIssac 2002). In theory, this procedure should have greatly reduce the risk of invasion as freshwater organisms would be purged or killed by seawater and would be replaced by marine organisms that would not survive if released into the freshwaters. However, the recent invasion of C. pengoi causes concern as it was apparently introduced after implementation of ballast water regulations, which raises concern that either these measures are not effective against gametogenic eggs of Cercopagis or control over the water exchange is not effective.\r\n

A few measures are recommended to prevent further local spread of C. pengoi and other species with similar ecology. Bait or bait water should not be released into water body or transport from one water body to another. Good containment measures should be followed to control both the spread of adults and resting eggs, which are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing for periods of several years. Rinsing boat and equipment with hot water (>40°C), high-pressure water spray, or drying boat and equipment for at least 5 days before re-entering water body will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi. Thoroughly draining and cleaning motor; bilge, transom and live wells; bait buckets; and fishing apparatus and gear will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi and resting eggs (Crosier and Molloy, Undated).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cercopagis pengoi
NATIVE RANGE
  • aral sea
  • caspian sea
  • mediterranean & black sea
  • ukraine
Informations on Cercopagis pengoi has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cercopagis pengoi in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Cercopagis pengoi preys on native zooplankton, may compete with native zooplanktivores, fouls fishing nets and other equipment, and may cause an array of other ecological impacts to aquatic systems. C. pengoi affects resident zooplankton communities by selective predation in Lake Ontario (Benoit et al. 2002); Gulf of Riga (Ojaveer et al. 1999, 2004); Gulf of Finland (Uitto et al. 1999; Lehtiniemi & Gorokhova 2008). Its invasion and populations in the Baltic Sea correlate to significant declines in small, cladoceran prey species Bosmina coregoni maritime, Evadne nordmanni, and Pleopsis polyphemoides (Kotta et al. 2006). A similar decrease in the abundance of copepods, including key species Eurytemora affinis, in the Gulf of Finland is believed to be caused by C. pengoi as well (Lehtiniemi & Gorokhova 2008). It is also a potential competitor with young stages of planktivorous fish for herbivorous zooplankton (Vanderploeg et al. 2002). Such changes in ecology may result in increased competition among zooplanktivores, decreased grazing pressure on phytoplankton, enhanced algal blooms, and major changes to higher trophic levels.\r\n

Additionally, this large cladoceran tends to attach to fishing gears, clogs nets and trawls, causing problems and ultimate economic losses for fishermen. Reports of their fouling and costly impacts have come from the Gulf of Finland, the Neva Estuary, the Archipelago Sea, the Northern Bothnian Sea, and on the coasts of Lithuania (Birnbaum 2006 and references therein). Its effects on the food-web and energy transfer in lower trophic levels are likely to cause problems with fish stocks (E. Gorokhova pers. comm., in Birnbaum 2006; Ojaveer et al. 2001). Anecdotal evidence suggests that it can cause allergic reactions in fisherman who clean remains from nets (Leppäkoski & Olenin 2000; ICES 2002).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Atlantic - Northeast
ESTONIA
Lake Ontario
POLAND
SWEDEN
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[4] Predation
Outcomes
[7] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of nutrient pool and fluxes
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [5] Reduction in native biodiversity
[3] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
  • [1] Alteration of recreational use and tourism
Management information
There is currently no known method of eradication or control for Cercopagis pengoi. Prevention of establishment and spread are the only means of management. Most probably, all trans-oceanic introductions of C. pengoi have resulted from the dumping of ship ballast water containing adults or eggs in new locations. Strengthening and improving existing ballast water regulations and promoting awareness of C. pengoi would therefore help in preventing the spread (Birnbaum, 2006). Prompted by the explosive increase of ship-borne exotic species in the Great Lakes, the USA implemented a regulation that requires inbound vessels to exchange freshwater/estuarine ballast with highly saline oceanic water in May 1993 (Ricciardi and MacIssac 2002). In theory, this procedure should have greatly reduce the risk of invasion as freshwater organisms would be purged or killed by seawater and would be replaced by marine organisms that would not survive if released into the freshwaters. However, the recent invasion of C. pengoi causes concern as it was apparently introduced after implementation of ballast water regulations, which raises concern that either these measures are not effective against gametogenic eggs of Cercopagis or control over the water exchange is not effective.\r\n

A few measures are recommended to prevent further local spread of C. pengoi and other species with similar ecology. Bait or bait water should not be released into water body or transport from one water body to another. Good containment measures should be followed to control both the spread of adults and resting eggs, which are capable of surviving desiccation and freezing for periods of several years. Rinsing boat and equipment with hot water (>40°C), high-pressure water spray, or drying boat and equipment for at least 5 days before re-entering water body will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi. Thoroughly draining and cleaning motor; bilge, transom and live wells; bait buckets; and fishing apparatus and gear will help to control the spread of adult C. pengoi and resting eggs (Crosier and Molloy, Undated).

Bibliography
61 references found for Cercopagis pengoi

Managment information
Bushnoe T. M, Warner D. M, Rudstam L. G, Mills E. L., 2003. Cercopagis pengoi as a new prey item for alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 29: 205-212.
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Crosier, D. M., and D. P.Molloy. UNDATED. Cercopagis pengoi - Fishhook Waterflea. Aquatic Nuisance Species Research Program.
ICES (2002) Report of the Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms, Gothenburg, Sweden, 20-22 March 2002,. ICES CM 2002/ACME: 06 Ref. E, F : 1-139.
Kane, D. D., E. M. Haas, and D. A. Culver. 2003. The Characteristics and Potential Ecological Effects of the Exotic Crustacean Zooplankter Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera: Cercopagidae), a Recent Invader of Lake Erie. Ohio Journal of Science 103(4):79-83.
Laxson, C. L., K. N. Mcphedran, J. C. Makarewicz, I. V. Telesh, and H. J. MacIssac. 2001. Effects of the non-indigenous cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi on the lower food web of Lake Ontario. Freshwater Biology (2003) 48, 2094-2106.
Lepp�koski, E. and Olenin, S. 2000. Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions. Vol. 2: 151-163.
Summary: This article discusses introductions of nonindigenous species to the Baltic Sea and provides a date for the discovery of Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
Makarewicz, J. C., I. A. Grigorovich, E. Mills, E. Damaske, and M. E. Cristescu. 2001. Distribution, Fecundity, and Genetics of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) (Crustacea, Cladocera) in Lake Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 27(1):19-32.
Ojaveer, H., M. Simm, and A. Lankov. 2004. Population dynamics and ecological impact of the non-indigenous Cercopagis pengoi in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). Hydrobiologia 522: 261-269, 2004.
Ricciardi, A., and H. J. MacIsaac. 2000. Recent mass invasion of the North American Great Lakes by Ponto-Caspian species . TREE vol. 15, no. 2 February 2000.
Sopanen, Sanna. 2008. The effect of temperature on the development and hatching of resting eggs of non-indigenous predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi in the Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea. Marine Biology (Berlin). 154(1). APR 2008. 99-108.
Telesh, V., P. V. Bolshagin, and V. E. Panov. 2001. Quantitative Estimation of the Impact of the Alien Species Cercopagis pengoi (Crustacea: Onychopoda) on the Structure and Functioning of Plankton Community in the Gulf of Finland. Biological Sciences, Vol. 377, 2001, pp. 157-159.
General information
Advisory Committee on the Marine Environment. 2002. Report Of The Working Group on Introductions and Transfers of Marine Organisms. ICES CM 2002/ACME:06 Ref. E, F.
Antsulevich A, V�lipakka P (2000) Cercopagis pengoi - new important food object of the Baltic herring in the Gulf of Finland. International Review of Hydrobiology 85: 609-619.
Benoit H. P, Johannsson O. E, Warner D. M, Sprules W. G, Rudstam L. G., 2002, Assessing the impact of a recent predatory invader: The population dynamics, vertical distribution, and potential prey of Cercopagis pengoi in Lake Ontario. Limnol. Oceanogr. 47: 626-635.
Birnbaum, C. 2006. NOBANIS � Invasive Alien Species Fact Sheet � Cercopagis pengoi.
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/files/factsheets/cercopagis_pengoi.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Cristescu, M. E., Hebert, P. D. N., Witt, J. D. S., MacIsaac, H. J. and Grigorovich, I. A. 2001. An invasion history for Cercopagis pengoi based on mitochondrial gene sequences. Limnl. Oceanogr. 46(2): 224-229.
Summary: Analysis of mithochondrial DNA sequence revealed that the Bug Liman was likely the source of the Baltic and Great Lakes populations. The colonization of North America was resulted from the transfer of animals from the Baltic Sea in ballast water.
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE), 2006. Factsheet Cercopagis pengoi
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/pdf/Cercopagis_pengoi.pdf [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE), 2006. Cercopagis pengoi
Summary: Available from: http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesId=53730 [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Gorokhova E, Aladin N, Dumont H., 2000. Further expansion of the genus Cercopagis (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Onychopoda) in the Baltic Sea, with notes on the taxa present and their ecology.. Hydrobiologia 429: 207-218.
Gorokhova E, Fagerberg T, Hansson S., 2004. Predation by herring (Clupea harengus) and sprat (Sprattus sprattus) on Cercopagis pengoi in a western Baltic Sea bay. ICES Journal of Marine Science 61: 959-965.
Gorokhova E, Hansson S, H�glander H, Andersen C. M., 2005. Stable isotopes show food web changes after invasion by the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi in a Baltic Sea bay. Oecologia 143: 251-259.
Gorokhova, Elena, Lehtiniemi, Maiju. 2007. A combined approach to understand trophic interactions between Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera : Onychopoda) and mysids in the Gulf of Finland. Limnology & Oceanography. 52(2). MAR 2007. 685-695.
Grigorovich, I. A., MacIsaac, H. J., Rivier, I. K., Aladin, N. V. and Panov, V. E. 2000. Comparative biology of the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi from Lake Ontario, Baltic Sea and Caspian Sea. Arch. Hydrobiol. 149(1): 23-50.
Summary: Morphological studies of C.pengoi from Lake Ontario, Baltic Sea and Caspian Sea revealed a high degree of variability in body length, structure and length of the caudal process, and shape and size of the brood pouch.
Grigorovich I. A, MacIsaac H. J, Rivier I. K, Aladin N. V, Panov V. E., 2000. Comparative biology of the predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi from Lake Ontario, Baltic Sea and Caspian Sea. Archive fur Hydrobiologie 149: 23-50.
Guher, H. 2004. A study on morphological characters, spatial, and seasonal densitites, and co-existence of two predatory cladocera, Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov, 1891) and Cornigerius meaticus (Pengo, 1879) in Lake Terkos, Turkey. Crustaceana 77 (6): 669-681.
Jacobs, Michael J. and MacIsaac, Hugh J. 2007. Fouling of fishing line by the waterflea Cercopagis pengoi: a mechanism of human-mediated dispersal of zooplankton?. Hydrobiologia. 583 JUN 2007. 119-126.
Jazdzewski, K. & Konopacka, A. 2002. Invasive Ponto-Caspian species in waters of the Vistula and Oder basins and the southern Baltic Sea. In: E. Lepp�koski , S. Gollasch & S. Olenin (Eds.), Invasive Aquatic Species of Europe: Distribution, Impacts and Management (pp. 384-398). Kluwer Academic Publishers, London.
Kotta, Jonne, Kotta, Ilmar, Simm, Mart, Lankov, Ain, Lauringson, Velda, Pollumae, Arno, Ojaveer, Henn. 2006. Ecological consequences of biological invasions: three invertebrate case studies in the north-eastern Baltic Sea. Helgoland Marine Research. 60(2). MAY 2006. 106-112.
Laxson C. L, McPhedran K. N, Makarewicz J. C, Telesh I. V, Macisaac H. J., 2003. Effects of the non-indigenous cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi on the lower food web of Lake Ontario. Freshwater Biology 48: 2094-2106.
Lehtiniemi, Maiju and Gorokhova, Elena. 2008. Predation of the introduced cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi on the native copepod Eurytemora affinis in the northern Baltic Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 362 2008. 193-200.
Lehtiniemi, Maiju and Linden, Eveliina. 2006. Cercopagis pengoi and Mysis spp. alter their feeding rate and prey selection under predation risk of herring (Clupea harengus membras). Marine Biology (Berlin). 149(4). JUL 2006. 845-854.
Lepp�koski, E. and Olenin, S. 2000. Non-native species and rates of spread: lessons from the brackish Baltic Sea. Biological Invasions. Vol. 2: 151-163.
Summary: This article discusses introductions of nonindigenous species to the Baltic Sea and provides a date for the discovery of Rhithropanopeus harrisii.
MacIsaac, H. J., Grigorovich, I. A., Hoyle, J. A., Yan, N. D. and Panov, V. E. 1999. Invasion of Lake Ontario by the Ponto-Caspian predatory cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi.. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 56: 1-5.
Summary: Cercopagis pengoi was first found in Lake Ontario in 1998. Females and males from Lake Ontario were significantly smaller than individuals from the Neva Estuary, Baltic Sea. The mean and maximum population densities were 170 and 322 individuals per cubi
Makarewicz, J. C., Grigorovich, I. A., Mills, E., Damaske, E., Cristescu, M. E., Pearsall, W., LaVoie, M. J., Keats, R., Rudstam, L., Hebert, P., Halbritter, H., Kelly, T., Matkovich, C. and MacIsaac, H. J. 2001. Distribution, fecundity, and genetics of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) (Crustacea, Cladocera) in Lake Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 27(1): 19-32.
Summary: Two distinctive forms of cercopagids, Cercopagis pengoi and Cercopagis ossiani were found to co-occur in Lake Ontario. Mitochondrial DNA analyses revealed that these two forms were identical at the ND5 gene. In 1999, Cercopagis reached a maximum abundance.
McPhedran, K. 2001. Predation of the introduced onychopod Cercopagis pengoi on planktonic crustaceans: patterns, mechanisms and effects on zooplankton community in Lake Ontario. in preparation.
Mordukhai-Boltovskoi F. D., 1960. Kaspijskaya fauna v Azovo-Chernomorskom bassejne. Nauka, Moscow-Leningrad: 288 pp. (in Russian). [Caspian fauna in the Azov-Black Sea basin].
Mordukhai-Boltovskoi F. D, Rivier I. K., 1987. Khishchnye vetvistousye (Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae i Leptodoridae) fauny mira, Nauka, Leningrad, 184 pp.(in Russian). [The predatory Cladocera (Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae and Leptodoridae) of the world].
English version
Rivier I. K 1998. The predatory Cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae) and Leptodorida of the World. Guides to the Identification of the Micro-Invertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, Backhuys Publishing, Leiden 13: 213 pp.
Summary: Taxonomy
Ojaveer H, Simm M, Lankov A., 2004. Population dynamics and ecological impact of the non-indigenous Cercopagis pengoi in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). Hydrobiologia 522: 261-269.
Ojaveer N, Kuhns L. A, Barbiero R. P, Tuchman M. L., 2001. Distribution and population characteristics of Cercopagis pengoi in Lake Ontario. Journal of Great Lakes Research 27: 10-18.
Olenin S., Lepp�koski E., Gollasch S., Gruszka P., Skora K., Hoppe K., Ojaveer H., Orlova M. 2002. Recently introduced non-indigenous species. Environment of the Baltic Sea area, 1994-1998. HELCOM. Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings, 82B: 173-175.
Parker, I.M., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Goodell, K., Wonham, M., Kareiva, P.M., Williamson, M.H>, Von Holle, B., Moyle, P.B., Byers, J.E. & Goldwasser, L. 1999. Impact: Toward a Framework for Understanding the Ecological Effects of Invaders. Biological Invasions, 1: 3-19.
Pichlova-Ptacnikova, Radka and Vanderploeg, Henry A. 2009. The invasive cladoceran Cercopagis pengoi is a generalist predator capable of feeding on a variety of prey species of different sizes and escape abilities. Fundamental & Applied Limnology. 173(4). 2009. 267-279.
Pollumae, Arno, Valjataga, Katrin. 2004. Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera) in the Gulf of Finland: environmental variables affecting its distribution and interaction with Bosmina coregoni maritima. Proceedings of the Estonian Academy of Sciences Biology Ecology. 53(4). December 2004. 276-282.
Pothoven, Steven A., Vanderploeg, Henry A., Cavaletto, Joann F., Krueger, Damon M., Mason, Doran M., Brandt, Stephen B. 2007. Alewife planktivory controls the abundance of two invasive predatory cladocerans in Lake Michigan. Freshwater Biology. 52(3). MAR 2007. 561-573.
Power, A.J., Walker, R.L., Payne, K., and Hurley, D. First occurrence of the nonindigenous green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus, 1758) in coastal Georgia, United States. Journal of Shellfish Research 23(3): 741-744, 2004
Rivier, I. K. 1998. The predatory cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae) and Leptodorida of the world. Backhuys Publishing, Leiden.
Summary: Part of the series: Guides to the identification of the microinvertebrates of the continental waters of the world (Edited by: H. J. F. Dumont).
Rivier I. K, 1998. The predatory Cladocera (Onychopoda: Podonidae, Polyphemidae, Cercopagidae) and Leptodorida of the World. Guides to the Identification of the Micro-Invertebrates of the Continental Waters of the World, Backhuys Publishing, Leiden 13: 213 pp.
Rivier, I. K., V. E. Panov, L. I. Tarasove, and M. M. Elizarenko. UNDATED. Cercopagis pengoi Ostroumov, 1892.
Summary: Available from: http://www.caspianenvironment.org/biodb/eng/zooplankton/Cercopagis%20pengoi/main.htm [Accessed 06 May 2005]
Simm M and Ojaveer H., 1999. Occurrence of different morphological forms of Cercopagis in the Baltic Sea. Proc. Estonian Acad. Sci. Biol. Ecol. 48: 169-170.
Simm, Mart and Ojaveer, Henn. 2006. Taxonomic status and reproduction dynamics of the non-indigenous Cercopagis in the Gulf of Riga (Baltic Sea). Hydrobiologia. 554 JAN 2006. 147-154.
Svensson, S. & Gorokhova, E. 2007. Embryonic development time of parthenogenically reproducing Cercopagis pengoi (Cladocera, Onychopoda) in the northern Baltic proper. Fundamental and Applied Limnology, 170: 257-261.
The North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species (NOBANIS), 2009. Cercopagis pengoi
Summary: Available from: http://www.nobanis.org/speciesInfo.asp?taxaID=1626 [Accessed 10 August 2009]
Therriault T. W, Grigorovich I. A, Kane D. D, Haas E. M, Culver D. A, MacIsaac H. J., 2002. Range expansion of the exotic zooplankter Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) into western Lake Erie and Muskegon Lake. J Great Lakes Res 28:698-701
Thompson, Elizabeth, Makarewicz, Joseph C., Lewis, Theodore W. 2005. Additional link in the food web does not biomagnify a persistent contaminant in Lake Ontario: The case of Cercopagis pengoi. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 31(2). 05. 210-218.
Summary: Cercopagis pengoi is a new and abundant non-indigenous predator species in the Lake Ontario food web. We explored the impact of this predator on the levels of a chlorinated hydrocarbon in the pelagic food web through assessments of seasonal abundance and mirex concentrations of Cercopagis pengoi (Ostroumov) and the planktivorous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus). Abundance, stable isotope, and alewife stomach data indicate that Cercopagis pengoi has become an established portion of the Lake Ontario food web. Cercopagis, a predaceous cladoceran, feeds on the lower portion of the trophic web and is clearly fed upon by the planktivorous alewife. Cercopagis is a link in the Lake Ontario food web, in which energy and materials are being passed from one level of the trophic web to another. However, mirex levels of the planktivorous alewife did not increase during the period of highest Cercopagis abundance. The annual load of mirex (mass of Cercopagis times concentration) transferred from one level of the trophic web to the next is low. In the summer, when Cercopagis is abundant, alewives were not feeding on them.
Uitto A, Gorokhova E, V�lipakka P., 1999. Distribution of the non-indigenous Cercopagis pengoi in the coastal waters of the eastern Gulf of Finland. Ices Journal of Marine Science 56: 49-57.
USGS-NAS (United States Geological Survey - Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database). 2004. Cercopagis pengoi.
Summary: Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?SpeciesID=163 [Accessed 06 May 2005]
Vanderploeg H. A, Nalepa T. F, Jude D. J, Mills E. L, Holeck K. T, Liebig J. R, Grigorovich I. A, Ojaveer H., 2002. Dispersal and emerging ecological impacts of Ponto-Caspian species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:1209-1228
Warner, David, Rudstam, Lars G., Benoit, Hugues, Mills, Edward L., Johannsson, Ora. 2006. Changes in seasonal nearshore zooplankton abundance patterns in Lake Ontario following establishment of the exotic predator Cercopagis pengoi. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 32(3). 2006. 531-542.
Summary: Cercopagis pengoi, a zooplanktivore first discovered in Lake Ontario in 1998, may reduce availability of prey for planktivorous fish. Cercoapgis pengoi is most abundant in late summer and fall. Therefore, we hypothesized that abundance of small zooplankton (bosminids and cyclopoids) species would decrease at that time. To determine if the establishment of C. pengoi was followed by changes in the zooplankton community, seasonal patterns in nearshore zooplankton collected from May to October 1995-2000 were examined. Early summer density of small zooplankton was similar in all years while late summer and fall densities were significantly lower in 1998-2000 than in 1995-1997. The declines of small zooplankton coincided seasonally with the peak in C. pengoi density. Other possible causes for the observed changes in small zooplankton are less likely. High levels of fish predation should have resulted in smaller zooplankton in 1998-2000 than in 1995-1997 and larger declines in Daphnia than other groups. This was not observed. There was no significant decline in chlorophyll-a concentrations or changes in temperature between 1995-1997 and 1998-2000. There re, the declines in density of small zooplankton were most likely the result of C. pengoi predation. The effect of C. pengoi establishment on alewives is increased competition for zooplankton prey but C. pengoi has replaced a portion of the zooplankton biomass and adult alewife diet formerly dominated by Diacyclops thomasi and Bosmina longirostris.
Witt, Allison M., Caceres, Carla E. 2004. Potential predator-prey relationships between Bythotrephes longimanus and Cercopagis pengoi in southwestern Lake Michigan. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 30(4). 2004. 519-527.
Witt, Allison M., Dettmer, John M., Caceres, Carla E. 2005. Cercopagis pengoi in southwestern Lake Michigan in four years following invasion. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 31(3). 2005. 245-252.
Summary: In 1999, a long-term monitoring program in southwestern Lake Michigan captured the invasion of Cercopagis pengoi (fish hook flea), a predatory zooplankton native to the Ponto-Caspian region. This invasion provided an opportunity to examine both the responses of a population following establishment in a new area and the immediate response of the native community. We compared seasonal dynamics and several morphological and life history traits of C. pengoi both among and within the 4 years following its invasion into Lake Michigan. Samples collected from five nearshore sites in southwestern Lake Michigan from 1999-2002 indicated that the average density doubled from 75 individuals/m(3) in 1999 to 150 individuals/m(3) in 2002. We found no evidence for rapid changes in body size or average clutch size as the population established. We did, however observe a shift in seasonal phenology, with the population occurring in the water column earlier each year. By 2002, Cercopagis pengoi appeared in the water column by July and persisted until early fall. We also compared the average monthly densities of several potential prey items in August in the years before (1998-1999) and after (2000-2003) establishment. Although we found a significant reduction in the average number of rotifers, the general trend was a decline in all zooplankton species. Given the number of previously established exotic species in this system, it may prove difficult to quantify the impact of this most recent addition on what is left of the native community.
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The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Cercopagis pengoi
Gorokhova,
Elena
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Dr. Gorokhova s research interests include plankton ecology and evolution, Baltic Sea zooplankton, ecophysiology of zooplankton, biochemical and molecular markers in ecological studies. Some of the projects she is currently involved are: a project evaluating main predator species and groups in the Baltic food webs as biological control agents of Cercopagis and exploring the concept of ecosystem management as a tool to reduce impacts of invading species; Understanding effects of Cercopagis on Baltic zooplankton and fish species, by studying its feeding habits and growth; studying the biodiversity and impacts of invading species and fisheries on the functioning of the Baltic ecosystem by monitoring and experiments and, studying long term changes in Baltic Sea zooplankton by the analyses of zooplankton samples from the norther Baltic Proper.
Organization:
Professor, Dept. of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, Sweden
Address:
Dept. of Systems Ecology Stockholm University Sweden
Phone:
+ 46 8 164256
Fax:
McPhedran,
Kerry
Cercopagis pengoi
Organization:
Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Canada.
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