• General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
mangle zapatero (Spanish, Puerto Rico), apareiba (Spanish), mangle dulce (Spanish), mangle Colorado (Spanish), mangle rojo (Spanish), mangrove (English, United States), mangle geli (Spanish), red mangrove (English, United States), mangué (Spanish), sapateiro (Spanish), purgua (Spanish), American mangrove (English, United States), togo (English, Samoa), tiri wai (English, Fiji), tapche (Spanish), candelón (Spanish)
Synonym
Similar species
Avicennia germinans, Laguncularia racemosa, Rhizophora racemosa, Rhizophora samoensis, Rhizophora x harrisonii
Summary
Rhizophora mangle (the red mangrove) is a coastal, estauarine species that can tolerate saltwater and extended flooding. It commonly forms monoculture stands in its native range, or is associated with two other common species of mangrove; the black mangrove and the white mangrove. It can flower year-round and the seed remains on the parent plant where it is in constant development until it germinates on the plant and then is released for dispersal. The red mangrove has a large native range and has been introduced to Hawai'i where it is considered an invasive species.
Species Description
Rhizophora mangle is a small aquatic tree or shrub, that can reach heights between 5-20m and a trunk diameter between 20-50cm. The bark is gray to brown, thin when a sapling, becoming thick and furrowed with maturity (Duke, 1983). The leaves are evergreen, opposite, simple, entire, elliptical, thick and leathery, the tops dark green, glossy to glabrous, with undersides yellow-green with black dots and no visible veination(Gilman, 1999). Leaf width 2.5-6cm and length 6-12cm (Duke, 1983). Prop roots originate from the stem or trunk of the plant about 2-4.5m high (Duke, 1983) and function in stabilizing the plant in the ground and facilitate gas exchange for respiration during periods when it is completelt submersed in standing water (Hill, 2001).
Lifecycle Stages
Flower production is continuous throughout the year, with a peak in flower production during the wet season in equatorial regions (Mehlig, 2006), and during early spring and summer for temperate regions (Gill, 1971). Flower production is not dependent on day-length (Mehlig, 2006). The fruit is a berry, also known as a propagule and is dark brown, ovoid to cylindrical or cigar shaped, 25cm long and 12mm in diameter (Duke, 1983). No dormnacy or seed phase occurs. The embryo is in continuous development and germinates while still on the parent plant, a process called vivipary (Hill, 2001). Embryo development can continue during cold periods, albeit reduced, in temperate regions (Mehlig, 2006). A high rate of propagule production has been observed (Krauss, 2003), making establishment and population levels rise quickly (Chimner, 2006). Propagules are dispersed by release from the mother plant, through physical forces such as severe storm (Proffitt, 2006) or though seasonal flooding patterns or tidal forces (Murray, 2003). The seed can remain viable, afloat in salt water, for up to a year before establishing itself on a suitable substrate (Hill, 2001). Vegetative reproduction through coppicing and suckers is possible but not common for the red mangrove (Proffitt, 2006).
Uses
Rhizophora mangle is used primarily for timber, building materials, fencing, firewood, charcoal, medicines, tannins for staining and leather making, hunting, salt extraction and for habitat for commercial fisheries and aquaculture (Kovacs, 1998). Medicinally red mangrove has been implicated for many different uses, but recent research shows that extracts made from the bark can reduce gastric ulcers, has antimicrobial and antioxidant properties (Berenguer, 2006). Uses also included are for ecological and landscape maintenance and stabilization. Red mangrove is commonly used to stabilize coastal mudlfats and reduce erosion rates (Cox, 1999).
Habitat Description
The red mangrove is found in five different topographical communities in subtropical to tropical coastal regions: fringe, riverine, overwash, basin, and supra-tidal flats (Murray, 2003). The differences amongst these classifications is due to elevation and its respect to the rise and fall of the water-level and its approximatey to the ocean. The red magrove can survive under permanent submersion, resulting from flooding, due to its unique anatomy and physiology (Hill, 2001). However, the red mangrove cannot tolerate arid conditions during seedling establishment, so often communities develop around spatial and temporal water patterns (Elster, 1999). The red magrove can tolerate salinity ranges from 0-90 parts per thousand (Hill, 2001), with higher salinity contents of the sediment impacting red mangrove establishment (Elster, 1999). Temperature ranges are from 21.6 °C - 25.6 °C (Duke, 1983) and sub-freezing temperature is what limits this species' range to below the 28° latitude in both hemispheres (Hill, 2001). Sedimentation type varies widely and pH ranges fall between 5.3-8.5 (Duke, 2006). The red mangrove can tolerate full sun and grows best under these conditions, however, seedlings can survive in the understory until a gap forms in the overtsory (Hill, 2001).
Reproduction
The red mangrove is hemaphroditic, containing both male and female sex organs . The main dispersal mechanism for the pollen is through the wind (Mehlig, 2006), which results in the mangrove self-pollinating quite readily, leading to inbreeding depressions within the population (Proffitt, 2006). The flowers are 2cm long, on forked stalks 4-7cm long originating from the leaf axils. The hypanthium is 5mm long, bell shaped with four pale yellow leathery sepals and four white to brown petals with a cottony textured surface. Eight stalkelss stamens, with a slender style and two-lobed stigma (Duke, 1983).
Nutrition
The red mangrove is a member of the kingdom Plantae and produces the energy it needs through photosynthesis. The limiting nutrients in its environment are nitrogen and phosphorous. Red mangrove communities form a source sink for these two macronutrients in its environment (Davis III, 2003). The red mangrove is a facultative halophyte, making it tolerant of high salinity in both water and sediment; however salinity is not a requirement for development (Hill, 2001).
Pathway
Rhizophora mangle has been planted to improve coastal beach habitats for native fauna and reduce the effects of erosion from severe weather or tidal forces (Linares, 2006).Rhizophora mangle has been planted to improve coastal beach habitats for native fauna and reduce the effects of erosion from severe weather or tidal forces (Linares, 2006). The red mangrove is an important species for developing habitat structure and resources for tropical and subtropical marine and freshwater fauna. It has been planted by the aquaculture industry to improve coastal habitat for fisheries and shellfish harvest (Kovacs, 1998).

Principal source: Duke, N.C., and J.A. Allen. 2006. Rhizophora mangle, R. samoensis, R. racemosa, R. × harrisonii (Atlantic–East Pacific red mangroves), ver. 2.1. In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai‘i.
Mehlig, U., 2006, Phenology of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. in the Caeté Estaury, Pará, equatorial Brazil, Aquatic Botany, 84, pp. 158-164.
Hill, K., July 25, 2001, Rhizophora mangle, Smithsonian Marine Station Fort Pierce.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2007-07-31

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2022) Species profile: Rhizophora mangle. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1164 on 09-12-2022.

General Impacts
Rhizophora mangle is an important species in coastal and wetland ecosystems and provides numerous ecological benefits to the environment. The species creates crucial habitat needed for marine and estuarine invertabrates and fish, as well as nesting grounds and food sources for wading birds (Linares, 2006). The mangrove is a source sink for nutrient recycling of limited elements like nitrogen and phosphorous, through leaf litter fall, thus conserving nutrients in the ecosystem for specialized decomposers (Davis III, 2003). The mangrove reduces erosion rates of coastal flats by buffering the effects of severe weather, like monsoons and hurricanes, and from repeated tidal forces (Linares, 2006). The red mangrove can survive under a wide range of environmental pressures, and therefore colonizes rapidly forming near monospecific stands that allows it outcompete native species (Krauss, 2003).
Management Info
Integrated management: To know the extent of the population of the red mangrove in a given region mapping techniques are recommended to quantify the severity of the problem. This information not only could be used classifying forest communities but also attmept to further explain the distribution pattern of the species (Murray, 2003). This may lead to local involvement in either a restoration project in areas where mangrove forests are being dessimated (Murray, 2003) or in locales like Hawai'i where management options focus on eradication (Rauzon, undated).

Physical: Physical control options are expensive, timely and moderately to highly effective (Allen, 1998). Cutting back vegetation with machinery, hand tools, and dredging canals and pools where it grows are all an effective means of reducing the population pool and allowing native species to return (Allen, 1998). If cutback to 10cm above the ground it is not likely to resprout, and if young mangroves in standing water are cutback to the waterline, they too are not likely to resprout (Rauzon, undated).

Chemical: The chemical Garlon 4 (TM) has been shown to be successful at eradicating the red mangrove with basal treatments (Rauzon, undated).
Please follow this link for Detailed Instructions for Application of Habitat Herbicide to Kill Red Mangrove compiled by Ann Kobsa (Invasive Species Coordinator, Malama O Puna)

Biological: A possible biological control is a species of fungus Cystospora rhizophorae which enters the red mangrove through wounded tissue and forms cankers on stem tissue. The fungus has been reported to cause a 33% mortality rate in seedlings when inoculated in the field (Wier, 2000).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Rhizophora mangle
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • angola
  • belize
  • benin
  • bermuda
  • brazil
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • cote d'ivoire
  • ecuador
  • french polynesia
  • gambia
  • ghana
  • greater antilles
  • guinea
  • guinea-bissau
  • guyana
  • lesser antilles
  • liberia
  • mexico
  • micronesia, federated states of
  • nigeria
  • panama
  • peru
  • polynesia
  • senegal
  • sierra leone
  • suriname
  • togo
  • united states
  • venezuela
Informations on Rhizophora mangle has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Rhizophora mangle in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
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Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Rhizophora mangle is an important species in coastal and wetland ecosystems and provides numerous ecological benefits to the environment. The species creates crucial habitat needed for marine and estuarine invertabrates and fish, as well as nesting grounds and food sources for wading birds (Linares, 2006). The mangrove is a source sink for nutrient recycling of limited elements like nitrogen and phosphorous, through leaf litter fall, thus conserving nutrients in the ecosystem for specialized decomposers (Davis III, 2003). The mangrove reduces erosion rates of coastal flats by buffering the effects of severe weather, like monsoons and hurricanes, and from repeated tidal forces (Linares, 2006). The red mangrove can survive under a wide range of environmental pressures, and therefore colonizes rapidly forming near monospecific stands that allows it outcompete native species (Krauss, 2003).
Red List assessed species 1: VU = 1;
View more species View less species
Management information
Integrated management: To know the extent of the population of the red mangrove in a given region mapping techniques are recommended to quantify the severity of the problem. This information not only could be used classifying forest communities but also attmept to further explain the distribution pattern of the species (Murray, 2003). This may lead to local involvement in either a restoration project in areas where mangrove forests are being dessimated (Murray, 2003) or in locales like Hawai'i where management options focus on eradication (Rauzon, undated).

Physical: Physical control options are expensive, timely and moderately to highly effective (Allen, 1998). Cutting back vegetation with machinery, hand tools, and dredging canals and pools where it grows are all an effective means of reducing the population pool and allowing native species to return (Allen, 1998). If cutback to 10cm above the ground it is not likely to resprout, and if young mangroves in standing water are cutback to the waterline, they too are not likely to resprout (Rauzon, undated).

Chemical: The chemical Garlon 4 (TM) has been shown to be successful at eradicating the red mangrove with basal treatments (Rauzon, undated).
Please follow this link for Detailed Instructions for Application of Habitat Herbicide to Kill Red Mangrove compiled by Ann Kobsa (Invasive Species Coordinator, Malama O Puna)

Biological: A possible biological control is a species of fungus Cystospora rhizophorae which enters the red mangrove through wounded tissue and forms cankers on stem tissue. The fungus has been reported to cause a 33% mortality rate in seedlings when inoculated in the field (Wier, 2000).

Management Category
Eradication
Unknown
Bibliography
24 references found for Rhizophora mangle

Management information
Allen, J. A., Jan., 1998, Mangroves as Alien Species: The Case of Hawaii, Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters, Vol. 7, No. 1, Biodiversity and Function of Mangrove Ecosystems pp. 61-71.
Summary: Important information regarding the influence of the red mangrove on Hawaii, and some important location information on its invasiveness to the islands.
Wier, A.M., Tattar, T.A., & Kleklowski Jr., E.J., 2000, Disease of Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) in Southwest Puerto Rico Caused by Cytospora rhizophorae, Biotropica 32(2), pp. 299-306.
Summary: This article discusses a fungal pathogen of red mangrove and its impact in monospecific stands. The pathogen could be promoted as a possible biological control of the red mangrove.
General information
Berenguer, B., et al, 2006, Protective and antioxidant effects of Rhizophora mangle L. against NSAID-induced gastric ulcers, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 103, pp. 194-200.
Summary: An article focusing on some of the current research of medicinal uses that the red mangrove offers to society, including the use for treating gastric ulcers.
Chimner, R.A., Fry, B., Kaneshiro, M.Y., & Cormier, N., July, 2006, Current extent and historical expansion of introduced mangroves on O ahu, Hawai i, Pacific Science, 60.3, pp. 377(8).
Summary: One of the main sources that references the arrival dates and distribution of the red mangrove in Hawaii, with particulars on Oahu over the past one hundred years.
Cox, E.F., & Allen, J.A., June 1999, Stand Structure and Productivity of the Introduced Rhizophora mangle in Hawaii, Estuaries Vol. 22 No. 2A pp. 276-284.
Summary: A brief abstract that gave some dated information on the first introduction of the red mangrove into Hawaii and how and why it was introduced.
Davis III., S. E., Corronado-Molina, C., Childers, D.L., & Day Jr., J. W., 2003, Temporally dependent C, N, and P dynamics associated with the decay of Rhizophora mangle L. leaf litter in oligotrophic mangrove wetlands of the Southern Everglades, Aquatic Botany, 75, pp. 199-215.
Summary: Information on the types of macronutrients and other elements that characterize mangrove forests in the Florida Everglades and how the mangrove impacts nutrient recycling for other species.
Duke, J.A., 1983, Handbook of Energy Crops, Purdue Univeristy, Center for New Crops and Plant Products, unpublished
Summary: This page has a great deal of detailed information on the morphological features and physical characteristics of the red mangrove, with particular focus on the flower structures. Other relevant information on uses and distribution which coincided with published literature sources.
Available from: http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy/Rhizophora_mangle.html#Uses [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
Duke, N.C., and J.A. Allen. 2006. Rhizophora mangle, R. samoensis, R. racemosa, R. � harrisonii (Atlantic�East Pacific red mangroves), ver. 2.1. In: Elevitch, C.R. (ed.). Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry. Permanent Agriculture Resources (PAR), Holualoa, Hawai�i.
Summary: An excellent source that covers all of the general information of the red mangrove, from habitat, competition, uses, ditribution, to similar species.
Available from: http://www.traditionaltree.org [Accessed on 5 February 2007].
Elster, C., Perdomo, L., & Schnetter, M.L., 1999, Impact of ecological factors on the regeneration of mangroves in the Ci�naga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia, Hydrobiologia, 413: pp. 35-46.
Summary: Another article used to reference the environmental conditions that red mangrove can survive and successfully colonize. From a regenration perspective but infomative on the ecology of the red mangrove nonetheless.
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, May 2006, Sea Stats: Mangroves Florida s Walking Trees, Fish and Wildlife Research Institute.
Summary: An online website that goes into deatil the physical and habitat differences between the red mangrove and the black and white mangrove, both of which are commonly associated species.
Available from: http://research.myfwc.com/engine/download_redirection_process.asp?file=mangroves_4413.pdf&objid=-1561&dltype=product [Accessed on 2 February 2007].
Gill, A.M., & Tomlinson, P.B., 1971, Studies on the Growth of the Red Mangrove Rhizophora mangle L., 3. Phenology of the Shoot, Biotropica, 3(2), pp. 109-124.
Summary: This online article was used to reference some envrionmental factors that affect flower bud and development formation, in particular temperature.
Gilman, E.F., October 1999, Rhizophora mangle Fact sheet FPS-502, University of Florida, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
Summary: This site was used for general morphological description and identification purposes.
Available from: http://hort.ufl.edu/shrubs/RHIMANA.PDF [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
Hill, K., July 25, 2001, Rhizophora mangle, Smithsonian Marine Station Fort Pierce
Summary: This webpage had lots of information on habitat description and environmental factors, such as salinity, temperature, precipitation. It also had general biology information on reproduction and life cycle stages.
Available from: http://www.sms.si.edu/irLspec/Rhizop_mangle.htm#reducing%20conditions [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2007. Online Database Rhizophora mangle.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=27791 [Accessed 1 February 2007]
Kovacs, J.M., 1998, Assessing mangrove use at the local scale, Landscape and Urban Planning, 43, pp. 201-208.
Summary: This article was the primary source for the uses of the red mangrove in subtropical and tropical countries on a local scale.
Krauss, K.W. & Allen, J.A., 2003, Influences of salinity and shade on seedling photosynthesis and growth of two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and Bruguiera sexangula, introduced to Hawaii, Aquatic Botany, 77, pp.311-324.
Summary: This article was used for its ecological and biological information on the red mangrove in Hawaii. It also goes into detail of how the red mangrove was able to rapidly colonize, once introduced and what environmental pressures it can tolerate when compared to native flora and fauna.
Linares, A.P. et al, 2006, The mangrove communities in the Arroyo Seco deltaic fan, Jalisco, Mexico, and their relation with the geomorphic and physical-geographic zonation, Catena, doi:10.1016/j.catena.2006.05.010.
Summary: The best source for mangrove forest ecology in subtropical to tropical regions and what characteristics and habitats result. Good information on tolrances to environmental conditions and dynamics of seasonal patterns on growth and development.
Mehlig, U., 2006, Phenology of the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L. in the Caet� Estaury, Par�, equatorial Brazil, Aquatic Botany, 84, pp. 158-164.
Summary: This article covered important abiotic environmental factors that affected the growth and development of the shoot and reproductive tissue. It also covered some of the seasonal aspects to development of the red mangrove.
Murray, M. R; S. A. Zisman, P. A. Furley, D. M. Munro, J. Gibson, J. Ratter, S. Bridgewater, C. D. Minty and C. J. Place; 2003. The mangroves of Belize: Part 1. distribution, composition and classification. Forest Ecology and Management Volume 174, Issues 1-3, Pages 265-279
Summary: Discusses the human impact on native forests of mangrove in Belize and how these unique ecosystems formed. It details some of the physical forces of mangrove dispersal and establishment and the local impacts mangrove forest destruction can have on the environment.
Proffitt, E.C., Milbrandt, E.C. & Travis, S.E., Dec. 2006, Red Mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) Reproduction and Seedling Colonization after Hurricane Charley: Comparisons of Charlotte Harbor and Tampa Bay, Estuaries and Coasts, Vol. 29, No. 6A, pp. 972-978.
Summary: This online journal described some of the genetic aspects to red mangrove reproduction, but it also went into general reproduction and life cycle as well as outline local dispersal mechanisms.
Available from: http://estuariesandcoasts.org/journal/ESTU2006/ESTU2006_29_6A_972_978.pdf [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
Smithsonian Institution and The National Tropical Botanical Garden, Flora of the Hawaiian Islands, undated
Summary: This site was used to determine which islands of Hawaii the red mengrove has become introduced to and naturalized in. Not much other information available.
Available from: http://ravenel.si.edu/botany/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/specs.cfm [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
United Nations Environment Programme- World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 2007, Species Database .
Summary: Good information regarding the distribution of the red mangrove worldwide, including other common names associated with this species worldwide.
Available from: http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?displaylanguage=eng&source=plants&Genus=Rhizophora&Species=mangle&Country=&tabname=names [Accessed on 1 February 2007].
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Rhizophora mangle
Kobsa,
Ann
Website
Ann Kobsa is project manager for the Hawai I Island Mangrove Eradication Project, which is funded by US Fish and Wildilfe Service and Hawai I Tourism Authority, and for which Malama O Puna has partnered with the Big Island Invasive Species Committee (BIISC). Ann works on restoration of habitats in lowland wet forest and along the coastline, through control of invasive species and replanting of both common and rare native plant species.
Organization:
Invasive Species Coordinator, Malama O Puna
Address:
PO Box 1520 Pahoa, HI 96778 USA
Phone:
Fax:
Rhizophora mangle
mangle zapatero, apareiba, mangle dulce, mangle Colorado, mangle rojo, mangrove, mangle geli, red mangrove, mangué, sapateiro, purgua, American mangrove, togo, tiri wai, tapche, candelón
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Assessor
Contributors
Reviewers
Recommended citation
(2022). Rhizophora mangle. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).