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  • Cecropia peltata flower cluster (Photo: http://www.discoverlife.org � Tomas Pickering and Graham Wyatt, 2006)
  • Cecropia peltata flowers  (Photo: http://www.discoverlife.org � Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 2003-2006)
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Common name
snakewood tree (English), yagrumo hembra (Spanish), faux ricin (French), pisse-roux (French), bois cannon (French), pop-a-gun (English), trumpet wood (English), guarumo (Spanish), Trompetenbaum (German), parasolier (French), trumpet tree (English), papyrus géant (English)
Synonym
Ambaiba pelata , Kuntze
Coilotapalus peltata , Britton
Similar species
Cecropia schreberiana
Summary
Cecropia peltata is a fast-growing, short-lived tree that grows in neotropical regions. It is light-demanding and rapidly invades disturbed areas, such as forest canopy gaps, roadsides, lava flows, agricultural sites, urban locations, and other disturbed areas. It naturally occurs in tropical Central and South America, as well as some Caribbean islands and has been introduced to Malaysia, Africa, and Pacific Islands. It may be replacing, or competing with, other native pioneer species in some locations.
Species Description
Cecropia peltata is a neotropical tree that reaches heights of 20 m or more. Its stems are hollow, partitioned at the nodes, and bear U-shaped leaf scars. Its leaves are alternate, long-lobed, ovate, somewhat pointed, about 10-50 cm wide, dark green and scaborous above and densley white-tomentose underneath. Its staminate inflorescence is an umbellate cluster of spikes 3-5.5 cm long, consisting of many individual tubular calyces with paired stamens, while its pistillate spikes are yellowish and 2-5.5 cm long, thick, and succulent when in fruit (PIER, 2009).
Notes
Cecropia peltata L was distinguished from C. schreberiana Miq. in 1988. Whereas Cecropia peltata occurs in Mexico and Central America, C. schreberiana occurs in the Antilles and northern South America (Howard, 1988; ISTF, 1997 in Brokaw, 1998; Csuhres, 2008). However, ITIS does not distinguish between the species and, in fact, states Cecropia schreberiana as the valid name for the species and indicates C. peltata as a synonym for C. schreberiana.
Lifecycle Stages
Seeds of Cecropia peltata require full sunlight for successful germination and with those conditions may be as high as 80-90%. Seedling leaves are pubescent on both sides, lanceolate, unlobed, and finely toothed. Seedlings are also very light demanding and seedling mortality in natural conditions is typically very high. It has been found that 99% of seedlings in forest openings die in the first year. C. peltata grows rapidly reaching 10-15 cm in height in 10 weeks and up to about 2 m in the first year. Reproductive maturity is reached by pistillate trees in 3-4 years and by staminate trees in 4-5 years. Maturation is dependant on allocation of resources for rapid initial height growth and factors such as the height of and proximity to surrounding vegetation with trees in open environments maturing faster than those in forest gaps. C. peltata usually reaches canopy height in about 10 years and its estimated life span is 30 years (Silander & Lugo, undated).
Uses
Cecropia peltata is popularly cultivated as an ornamental species (Bodkin 1990 in Csurhes, 2008).
Habitat Description
Cecropia peltata typically inhabits forest gaps and disturbed sites (PIER, 2009), such as, along roadsides, agricultural sites, lava flows, and urban locations (Binggeli, 1999). It is a fast growing, high light demanding, pioneer species that colonizes tree fall gaps in ts native range and is capable of establishing dense stands (PIER, 2009). It is known from altitudes of 50-2700 m (Hurtado & Alson, 1995). C. peltata requires much rainfall and may be found in environments with 990 mm to over 3,810 mm of annual percipitation. It grows in alluvial, colluvial, and residual soils neutral to acidic in nature. Soil texture may range from heavy clay to sandy, but a clay-loam soil is optimal. C. peltata is also generally found in warm climates ranging from montane to tropical with mean annual temperatures of 12-24°C (Silander & Lugo, undated).
Reproduction
Cecropia peltata is dioecious and becomes sexually mature in 3 to 5 years. Its tiny flowers are clustered on 5 to 10 cm long spikes and are wind-pollinated. On female spikes the minute one-seeded fruits form large fruit clusters which appear to take around a month to mature. A spike contains around 800 viable seeds which are about 1.9 mm long and weigh 1.6 mg. Bats and birds eat large quantities of the succulent fruits and are the main seed disperser. In Costa Rica a similar amount of fruits are consumed during the day, mainly by monkeys, and at night by bats and arboreal mammals. A large and persistent seedbank is formed in the forest soil (Bingelli, 1999). In some locations flowering and fruiting occur year-round and in others it it seasonal with a peak in either the wet or the dry season depending on location (Silander & Lugo, undated; Bingelli, 1999). C. peltata is highly productive and seed production is estimated to be as high as 1 million seeds per year (Silander & Lugo, undated)
Pathway

Principal source: Bingelli, Pierre, 1999. Cecropia peltata L. (Cecropiaceae).
Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2009. Cecropia peltata Regel, Cecropiaceae
Csurhes, Steve, 2008. Cecropia, Cecropia spp. Pest Plant Risk Assessment. Biosecurity Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland
Silander, Susan R. and Ariel E. Lugo, undated. Cecropia peltata L. Yagrumo Hembra, Trumpet-Tree.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2011-02-23

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Cecropia peltata. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=116 on 25-08-2016.

General Impacts
Cecropia peltata forms dense stands that may compete with or displace native pioneer species and reduce species richness (Bingelli, 1999; Dumont et al, 1990). Evidence suggests it competes with and may displace tropical African pioneer species Musanga cecropioides (Bingelli, 1999).
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Cecropia peltata for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behavior in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\nPhysical: Hand pulling or digging out seedlings and young trees is recommended (PIER, 2009).

\nChemical: Larger trees should be cut and their stumps should be treated with herbicide (PIER, 2009).

\nBiological control: C. peltata has been found to be attacked by Historis spp. and various moth species and is sometimes extensively defoliated (Bingelli et al, 1998). \n

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Cecropia peltata
NATIVE RANGE
  • belize
  • colombia
  • costa rica
  • guatemala
  • guyana
  • honduras
  • jamaica
  • mexico
  • nicaragua
  • panama
  • suriname
  • trinidad and tobago
  • venezuela
Informations on Cecropia peltata has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Cecropia peltata in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Cecropia peltata forms dense stands that may compete with or displace native pioneer species and reduce species richness (Bingelli, 1999; Dumont et al, 1990). Evidence suggests it competes with and may displace tropical African pioneer species Musanga cecropioides (Bingelli, 1999).
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
CAMEROON
COTE D'IVOIRE
MALAYSIA
Mechanism
[3] Competition
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [3] Reduction in native biodiversity
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Cecropia peltata for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 9 and a recommendation of: \"Likely to cause significant ecological or economic harm in Hawai‘i and on other Pacific Islands as determined by a high WRA score, which is based on published sources describing species biology and behavior in Hawai‘i and/or other parts of the world.\"

\nPhysical: Hand pulling or digging out seedlings and young trees is recommended (PIER, 2009).

\nChemical: Larger trees should be cut and their stumps should be treated with herbicide (PIER, 2009).

\nBiological control: C. peltata has been found to be attacked by Historis spp. and various moth species and is sometimes extensively defoliated (Bingelli et al, 1998). \n

Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Unknown
Bibliography
25 references found for Cecropia peltata

Managment information
Australian Weed Committee, 2010. Weed Identification: Australia > > Trumpet Tree
Summary: Available from: http://www.weeds.org.au/cgi-bin/weedident.cgi?tpl=plant.tpl&state=&s=&ibra=all&card=T38 [Accessed March 25 2010]
Binggeli, Pierre; John B. Hall and John R. Healy, 1998. An Overview of Invasive Woody Plants in the Tropics
Summary: Available from: http://www.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/welcome.shtml [Accessed March 25 2010]
Csurhes, Steve, 2008. Cecropia, Cecropia spp. Pest Plant Risk Assessment. Biosecurity Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland
Daehler, C.C; Denslow, J.S; Ansari, S and Huang-Chi, K., 2004. A Risk-Assessment System for Screening Out Invasive Pest Plants from Hawaii and Other Pacific Islands. Conservation Biology Volume 18 Issue 2 Page 360.
Summary: A study on the use of a screening system to assess proposed plant introductions to Hawaii or other Pacific Islands and to identify high-risk species used in horticulture and forestry which would greatly reduce future pest-plant problems and allow entry of most nonpests.
Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2009. Cecropia peltata Regel, Cecropiaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/cecropia_peltata.htm [Accessed March 25 2010]
Pacific Ecosystems at Risk (PIER), 2009. Risk Assessment Cecropia peltata Regel, Cecropiaceae
Summary: Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/wra/pacific/cecropia_peltata_htmlwra.htm [Accessed March 25 2010]
General information
Bingelli, Pierre, 1999. Cecropia peltata L. (Cecropiaceae)
Summary: Available from: http://www.bangor.ac.uk/~afs101/iwpt/web-sp3.htm [Accessed March 25 2010]
CABI, Forestry Compendium, 2006. Common names Cecropia peltata
Summary: Available from: http://www.cabicompendium.org/NamesLists/FC/Full/CECRPE.htm [Accessed March 25 2010]
Fleming, Theodore H. and Charles F. Williams, 1990. Journal of Tropical Ecology (1990), 6 : 163-178 Cambridge University Press
Florence J. Chevillotte H. Ollier C.& Meyer J.-Y., 2007. Cecropia peltata. Base de donn�es botaniques Nadeaud de l Herbier de la Polyn�sie fran�aise (PAP).
Summary: Base de donn�es sur le flore de Polyn�sie Fran�aise.
Available from: http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf/Selection_Taxonomie.php?id_tax=9466 [Accessed March 2008]
F�veri, Sarita B. & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos, 2004. The Azteca�Cecropia Association: Are Ants Always Necessary for Their Host Plants? Biotropica Dec 2004 : Vol. 36, Issue 4, pg(s) 641-646 doi: 10.1646/1606
Howard, R. A. 1988. Flora of the Lesser Antilles, volume 4. Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plains, MA.
Hurtado, In�s and Julio Alson, 1995. Airborne dispersal of Cecropia peltata L. (Moraceae) pollen, a neotropical species, in the vicinity of Caracas, Venezuela. Aerobiologia 11 (1995) 101-103
IABIN, 2008. Guarumo Species and Specimens Thematic Network
Summary: Available from: http://ara.inbio.ac.cr/SSTN-IABIN/species/157260 [Accessed March 25 2010]
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), 2010. Cecropia schreberiana Miq.
Summary: Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=565052 [Accessed March 25 2010]
James Cook University, 2010. Cecropia peltata
Summary: Available from: http://cms.jcu.edu.au/discovernature/weeds/JCUPRD_043283 [Accessed March 25 2010]
MacKee, H.S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultiv�es en Nouvelle-Cal�donie, 2nd edn. MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Cet ouvrage liste 1412 taxons (esp�ces, sous esp�ces et vari�t�s) introduits en Nouvelle-Cal�donie. L auteur pr�cise dans la majorit� des cas si l esp�ce est cultiv�e ou naturalis�e.
McKey, Doyle, 1988. Cecropia peltata, an Introduced Neotropical Pioneer Tree, is Replacing Musanga cecropioides in Southwestern Cameroon. Biotropica, Vol. 20, No. 3 (Sep., 1988), pp. 262-264
Meyer, Jean-Yves and Jacques Florence, 1996. Tahiti s Native Flora Endangered by the invasion of Miconia calvescens DC Melastomataceae. Journal of Biogeography (1996) 23, 775-781
Summary: Available from: http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_7/b_fdi_51-52/010014779.pdf [Accessed March 25 2010]
Meyer, J.-Y. 2004. Threat of invasive alien plants to native flora and forest vegetation of eastern Polynesia. Pacific Science, 58, 357-375
Summary: Dans cet article, la menace croissante des plantes exotiques envahissantes est discut�e et les esp�ces les plus envahissantes sont d�crites. Des hypoth�ses sur l invasibilit� des �les sont pr�sent�es � la lumi�re des observations et des donn�es r�colt�es.
Meyer, J.-Y., Loope, L., Sheppard, A., Munzinger, J., Jaffre, T. 2006. Les plantes envahissantes et potentiellement envahissantes dans l archipel n�o-cal�donien : premi�re �valuation et recommandations de gestion. in M.-L. Beauvais et al. (2006) : Les esp�ces envahissantes dans l�archipel n�o-cal�donien, Paris, IRD �ditions, 260 p.+ c�d�rom.
Silander, Susan R. and Ariel E. Lugo, undated. Cecropia peltata L. Yagrumo Hembra, Trumpet-Tree
Summary: Available from: http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/Volume_2/cecropia/peltata.htm [Accessed March 25 2010]
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Cecropia peltata
Meyer,
Jean-Yves
Geographic region: Pacific, Indian Ocean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Expert in the botany of French Polynesia and the Pacific Islands, and has worked on ecology and biological control of Miconia calvescens in French Polynesia.
Organization:
D�l�gation � la Recherche
Address:
D�l�gation � la Recherche, Gouvernement de Polyn�sie fran�aise. B.P. 20981, 98713 Papeete, Tahiti, Polyn�sie fran�aise
Phone:
689 47 25 60
Fax: