Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
two-groove odostome (English)
Odostimia bisuturalis , (Say, 1822)
Turritella bisuturalis , (Say, 1822)
Similar species
Boonea bisuturalis is native to the St. Lawrence River and the northwest Atlantic coast. It primarily feeds on other molluscs and grasses. It is an extoparisitic species and feeds on internal parts of its prey. It can be found under rocks at the line of low tide. B. bisuturalis has been introduced further south to the Gulf of Mexico and San Francisco. This species has been introduced to Califonia through contaminated oyster stock.
Species Description
Boonea bisuturalis has a small shell that is ovate and conical. The shell is whitish with a single revolving line between the suture. The surface is smooth with five or six whorls and a distinct line revolves just before the suture. The whorl at the bottom is larger than the other whorls; it makes up about half the shell's length. B. bisuturalis has a bluish-white pillar lip that is smooth and rounded. Within the shell there is a lip that is turned outwards, which produces an umbililcal chink. The length is 5.08mm and the width is 2.54mm (Gould, 1870).
Boonea bisuturalis is an ectoparasitic snail (Ray, 2005), which means that it lives outside its hosts body and feeds on its internal fluids and tissue.
Habitat Description
Boonea bisuturalis is most commonly found \"below the line of low tide, adhered to rocks\" (García-Cubas et al. 1992). It has also been found on decayed wood and under stones on the shore in Massachusetts (Gould, 1870). Marsh (1976) found B. bisuturalis in unvegetated muddy sand.
The season when Boonea bisuturalis spawns is during early June to mid-September (Robertson, 1978). B. bisuturalis is a hermaphroditic species, but self-fertilisation is hindered due to morphological, physiological, or behaviour problems (Nautilus, undated). To transfer sperm cells from the spermatophore, two B. bisuturalis must be present. They connect to each other with \"one holding on with its foot to the basal part of the apertural side of the shell of the other.\" The spermatophores are stuck together in the mantle cavity where transfer occurs (Robertson, 1978).
The diet of Boonea bisuturalis consistes of plankton and detrital food items and also oysters, clams, and mussels (Cohen and Carlton, 1995). B. bisuturalis feeds on the odostomoid species Fargoa bartschi. It also feeds on gastropod and bivalve species. The species upon which B. bisuturalis primarily feeds is the snail, Littorena littorea. Another host of B. bisuturalis is the oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Robertson and Mau-Lastovicka, 1979).
Boonea bisuturalis has been introduced to Califonia through contaminated oyster stock.

Principal source: Robertson, R. 1978. Spermatophores fo Six Eastern North American Pyramidellid Gastropods and their Systematic Significance (With the New Genus Boonea). Bio. Bull. 155: 360-382.;

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)


Publication date: 2007-05-14

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2022) Species profile: Boonea bisuturalis. Downloaded from on 21-01-2022.

General Impacts
Boonea bisturalis is an ectoparasite on the Atlantic oyster Crassostrea virginica and other bivalves and gastropods. It was found in association with the native hornsnail Cerithidae californica and the Atlantic mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (see Nassarius obsoletus) (Cohen & Carlton 1995).
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Boonea bisuturalis
  • st. lawrence river
  • united states
Informations on Boonea bisuturalis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Boonea bisuturalis in information
Arrival date
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Boonea bisturalis is an ectoparasite on the Atlantic oyster Crassostrea virginica and other bivalves and gastropods. It was found in association with the native hornsnail Cerithidae californica and the Atlantic mudsnail Ilyanassa obsoleta (see Nassarius obsoletus) (Cohen & Carlton 1995).
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
12 references found for Boonea bisuturalis

Management information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from [Accessed 13 January 2009].
General information
Bay of Fundy Species Information. Undated. Boonea bisuturalis.
Summary: This website offers information on the classification, biology, and ecology of the species. Links are also given to help in finding other useful information.
Available from: [Accessed January 17, 2007]
Cohen, A.N. J.T. Carlton. 1995. Nonindigenous Species in a United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Summary: This article describes the different invasions that have occurred in San Francisco Bay. It is considered the most extensively invaded ecosystem in North America. The research was done done to determine what types of species were located there and their ecological impacts.
Available from: [Accessed January 17, 2007]
Collin, R. 1997. Hydrophobic Larval Shells: Another Character for Higher Level Systematics of Gastropods. J. Moll. Studies. 63: 425-430.
Summary: This article was a survey of 57 species to determine that hydrophobicity is common in gastropods.
Garc�a-Cubas, A., M. Reguero, R. Elizarrar�s. 1992. Moluscos of System Lagunar Chica-Grande, Veracruz, Mexico: Systematics and Ecology. Annals of the Institute of Sciences of the Sea and Limnology.
Summary: This was a study of the species composition in the area of Lagunar Chica-Grande in Veracruz, Mexico. It describes the different gastropods and bivalves found in the lagoon.
Gould, A. 1870. Report on the Invertabrata of Massachusetts. Right and Potter State Printers, Boston. 327-328.
Summary: This book describes in detail the description of invertabrates in Massachusetts. Also given is the distribtution of them in Massachusetts.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2007. Online Database Boonea bisuturalis.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from : {Accessed January 17, 2007]
Marsh, G.A. 1976. Ecology of the Gastropod Epifauna of Eelgrass in a Virginia Estuary. Chesapeake Science. 17(3): 182-187.
Summary: This was a study done about the species composition of the York River in Virginia. It was found that gastopods were the predominant faunal element.
Available from: [Accessed January 17, 2007]
Nonindigenous Aquatic Species (NAS), 2005. United States Geological Survey (USGS). Boonea bisuturalis.
Summary: This website gives where the species has been recorded and if it is established.
Available from: [Accessed January 17, 2007]
Ray, G.L. 2005. Invasive Marine and Estaurine Animals of California. Aquatic Nuisance Species Program (ANSRP).
Summary: This article discusses introduced, nonindigenous species. It shows how introduced species can cause potential threats to ecosystems, fisheries, and its impact on humans.
Robertson, R. 1978. Spermatophores fo Six Eastern North American Pyramidellid Gastropods and their Systematic Significance (With the New Genus Boonea). Bio. Bull. 155: 360-382.
Summary: This article discusses how spermatophores of different Pyramidellid are diiferent in appearance and how they are used in the reproductive process.
Robertson, R. T. Mau-Lastovicka. 1979. The Ectoparasitism of Boonea and Fargoa (Gastropoda:Pyramidellidae). Biol. Bull. 157: 320-333.
Summary: The artilcle shows how certain pyramidellids do not feed on everything on which they are attached. Studied was to see if these gastropods are host specific. Also addressed was how Boonea and Fargoa share these hosts as resources.
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Boonea bisuturalis
Boonea bisuturalis
two-groove odostome
Date assessed
Year published
Eicat category
Justification for EICAT assessment
Confidence rating
Mechanism(s) of maximum impact
Countries of most severe impact
Description of impacts
Recommended citation
(2022). Boonea bisuturalis. IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT).