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  • A male Carcinus maenas from San Francisco Bay. Note the shape of the carapace with 5 spines along the edge between the eye socket and the widest point of the carapace, the 3 rounded projections between the eyes, the 2 arcs of white spots on the back, and the somewhat flattened rear legs (Photo: Luis A. Sol�rzano www.californiabiota.com)
  • Underside of a male Carcinus maenas from San Francisco Bay (Photo: Luis A. Sol�rzano www.californiabiota.com)
  • A large male Carcinus maenas with an orange shell. Found at low tide in a flooded pit dug by a bat ray (Mylobatus californicus) on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay (Photo: Andrew N. Cohen www.exoticsguide.org)
  • A large male Carcinus maenas with an orange shell. Found underneath a seaweed-covered rock in San Francisco Bay (Photo: Andrew N. Cohen www.exoticsguide.org)
  • A poster used to track the spread of Carcinus maenas on the Pacific Coast
  • Carcinus maenas (Photo: Luis A Solorzano, californiabiota.com)
  • Underside of Carcinus maenas (Photo: Luis A Solorzano, californiabiota.com)
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Common name
le crabe vert (French), European shore crab (English), green crab (English), shore crab (English), Strandkrabbe (German), European green crab (English, Germany), le crabe vert Europeén (French), le crabe enragé (French)
Synonym
Carcinides maenas , (Linnaeus, 1758)
Cancer marinus sulcatus , Rumph, 1705
Portunus maenas , Leach, 1814
Carcinus maenas , Leach, 1814
Cancer maenas , Linnaeus, 1758
Similar species
Summary
Carcinus maenas is native to Europe and northern Africa and has been introduced to the North America, Australia, parts of South America and South Africa. It is a voracious food generalist and in some locations of its introduced range it has caused the decline of other crab and bivalve species. Its success with invasion has also caused numerous other problems that require management.
Species Description
The European green crab is one of the world's most successful aquatic invaders (Darling et al 2008). It is a voracious omnivore with a wide tolerance for salinity variation, water temperature and habitat types (Klassen & Locke, 2007). It has primarily been characterized as a molluscan predator (DeGraaf & Tyrrell, 2004). This species has a larval stage that typically includes four zoeal stages and a megalopa stage. It is a medium sized crab, being more broad than it is long. In its adult size it can get up to about 6 cm in length and 9 cm wide. It has a thorax granulate with five lateral spines about equal in size on either side of the rostrum. The sides of the thorax contain silky hair. The orbit subovate is an obtuse tooth beneath the anterior canthus. The rostrum protrudes with three very obtuse subequal teeth, with the middle tooth being the smallest. The body and feet are spotted with brown and covered with minute, crowded granules; those on the thorax are more conspicuous. The spots of the feet and abdomen are impressed and placed in more or less obvious lines. The chelae are large and slightly unequal with the second and third joint ciliate before. The carups is acutely spined within having no spine on the opposite edge. The hand is convex on the back, with an elevated line above on the inner side. The fingers are striate with impressed lines, about four on the thumb, not falcate at tip. The second to fourth walking legs are about equal, and the fifth leg is more compressed with a dactyl that is wider but not spatulate as in other Portunidae. The abdomen of the male is triangular, and the somites 3-5 are fused (Klassen & Locke, 2007). This species is a poikilotherm, thus physiology and behavior are affected by daily and seasonal temperature variations. The green crab is capable of producing eggs at temperatures up to 26 degrees Celsius but larval development is limited to a narrower range. In addition, green crabs are considered reasonably tolerant of oxygen stresses (Klassen & Locke, 2007).
Notes
Salinity tolerance enables distribution in estuaries
Lifecycle Stages
Larval stages include Protozoea, Zoea (4 stages) and Megalopa. The lifespan of females is about 3 years, while it is about 5 years for males. Larvae are not as tolerant to temperature, salinity, or starvation as adults which may be the limiting factor in the ability to become established in new habitats. Suboptimal salinity can result in delays in larval development (Bravo, 2007). This species has been proven to grow faster and achieve larger maximum size on the Pacific coast of North America than they do on the Atlantic coast of North America and in their native range (Gillespie et al 2007). Molting, and consequently growth is affected by food availability and seasonal temperature fluctuation with 10 degrees Celsius indicated as an important thermal barrier (Klassen & Locke, 2007).
Uses
In native ranges of Europe, Carcinus maenas has been fished commercially for years (Klassen, 2007). In addition, this species has been recommended as an indicator species for the monitoring of heavy metal contamination because heavy metal pollution has been associated with respiratory failure in crabs (Klassen & Locke, 2007). While in its native range, this species is considered an important scavenger, especially of commercial fishery discards (Klassen & Locke, 2007).
Habitat Description
Adult Carcinus maenas can tolerate temperatures ranging from 0 to 33°C, salinities from 4 to 54, starvation for up to 3 months, and air exposure in damp burrows for up to 10 days (Bravo, Cameron & Metaxas, 2007). Larvae have narrower temperature tolerances and there is evidence that some have not been able to survive when cultured at 6 and 25 degrees Celsius (deRivera et al 2007). As this species increases in age, it begins to occupy more of a variety of substrates such as mud, sand, rock, and eelgrass. It can also occupy depths ranging from high tide to 6 meters, and there have even been records of up to 60 meters (Breen & Metaxas, 2008). The expansion and contraction of this species along the northern limit along the western Atlantic has coincided with short-term temperature changes, suggesting that cold water temperature determines the northernmost limit of the species (deRivera et al 2005).
Reproduction
In Europe, the green crab's entire reproductive cycle usually lasts about a year. However, gonadogenesis may occur twice a year in the case of large females. Individuals usually mate once a year during the midsummer to early-fall period. Reproductive strategies may differ among newly invaded coastlines (Audet et al 2008).
Nutrition
This species preys on large and small snails with a preference for the smaller snails (Eastwood et al 2007). In addition, soft-shell clams are a significant prey item for the European green crab (Floyd & Williams, 2004). The European green crab is also a major predator on clams, mussels, juvenile fishes and other species in natural settings and in aquaculture (Gillespie et al 2007).
Pathway
The transport vectors implicated in the events of introduction of this species include natural dispersal, solid ballast, hull and equipment fouling, ballast water, and contaminated packing material shipped with commercial shellfish (Darling et al 2008).

Principal source:

Compiler: Ingo Narberhaus & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: Dr. Stephan Gollasch, GoConsult, Grosse Brunnenstrasse 61, 22763 Hamburg, Germany

Publication date: 2009-04-25

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Carcinus maenas. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=114 on 28-09-2016.

General Impacts
Carcinus maenas is a voracious predator. It is able to crush mussels and shows a clear potential to negatively threaten mussel farms. In its native range, as well as in invaded regions, this species has been considered responsible for significant impacts on epibenthic and infaunal species, such as bivalves, other mollusks, and crustaceans, through predation, competition, and burrowing activities (Bravo, 2007). This species competes with other decapods for food or structure as well as resource competition, which may affect their geographic distribution (deRivera et al, 2005). The collapse of the soft-shell clam industries, in both New England and Nova Scotia, have been attributed to this species, which is causing concern for other local fisheries and economies (Breen & Metaxas, 2008). In the United States alone, C. maenas causes approximately $22 million dollars worth of damage each year (Williams, 2008). In areas in which the green crab has been introduced, it has the potential for significant impacts on fisheries, aquaculture, and the ecosystem. In fact, numerous studies have shown the potential for green crab to adversely affect many ecosystem components, directly and indirectly, by predation, competition and habitat modification (Klassen & Locke, 2007). This species has been documented as being a potential facilitator of Styela, which is an invasive club tunicate is some areas. They could facilitate the invasions by preying on tunicate predators. Green crabs are known to comsume prey from at least 158 genera and have been widely documented to decrease the diversity and biomass of estuarine communities (Locke et al 2007).
Management Info
Prevention: Block anthropogenic pathways. Vectors such as ballast water accelerate the transport of populations into areas, and slowed expansion times can provide significant economic benefits (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

Physical: constructing local physical barriers such as fences, rafts and nets may help to keep crabs in a controlled area. Also altering fishing practices may be helpful. For example, overwintering seed so that it is larger when planted and in closed areas. In addition, manual removal, commercial harvesting, trapping, and parasitic castrators are all possible options for control (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

Biological: A crab native to North America, Callinectes sapidus has been proven to have a significant effect on the abundance of this species, having increasing effects at the southern end of the range (deRivera, Ruiz, Hines & Jivoff, 2005). The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has a negative influence on the mussel consumption of the European green crab and thus, its resulting growth rates. The Asian shore crab also affects this species by consuming settling post-larvae and displacing juveniles from their refuge habitat under rocks (Griffen, Guy & Buck, 2008). Another possibility is to utilize biological control by \"guarding\" bivalve seed using the toadfish, Opanus tau. (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

The parasitic barnacle, Sacculina carcini is a potential biocontrol agent for introduced C. maenas populations. However laboratory host specificity testing of native California crabs showed that S. carcini larvae settled on, infected and killed all four of the native crab species tested. However the infection process was different in native crabs and S. carcini was not able to fully mature and produce reproductive sacs in native crabs, in contrast to C. maenas. Goddard et al emphasise the importance of weighing up the potential benefits of using S. carcini as a biological control agent, with the potential non-target impacts (Goddard et al. 2005).

\r\nOther biocontrol agents may have the potential to control green crabs, which include the parasitic isopod Portunion maenadis, the flatworm Fecampia erythrocephala and the egg predator Carcinonemertes carcinophila. However more information is needed on the host specificity and life history characteristics of these natural enemies (Goddard et al. 2005).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Carcinus maenas
ALIEN RANGE
NATIVE RANGE
  • belgium
  • denmark
  • france
  • germany
  • iceland
  • ireland
  • mauritania
  • morocco
  • netherlands
  • norway
  • portugal
  • spain
  • sweden
  • united kingdom
  • western sahara
Informations on Carcinus maenas has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Carcinus maenas in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Carcinus maenas is a voracious predator. It is able to crush mussels and shows a clear potential to negatively threaten mussel farms. In its native range, as well as in invaded regions, this species has been considered responsible for significant impacts on epibenthic and infaunal species, such as bivalves, other mollusks, and crustaceans, through predation, competition, and burrowing activities (Bravo, 2007). This species competes with other decapods for food or structure as well as resource competition, which may affect their geographic distribution (deRivera et al, 2005). The collapse of the soft-shell clam industries, in both New England and Nova Scotia, have been attributed to this species, which is causing concern for other local fisheries and economies (Breen & Metaxas, 2008). In the United States alone, C. maenas causes approximately $22 million dollars worth of damage each year (Williams, 2008). In areas in which the green crab has been introduced, it has the potential for significant impacts on fisheries, aquaculture, and the ecosystem. In fact, numerous studies have shown the potential for green crab to adversely affect many ecosystem components, directly and indirectly, by predation, competition and habitat modification (Klassen & Locke, 2007). This species has been documented as being a potential facilitator of Styela, which is an invasive club tunicate is some areas. They could facilitate the invasions by preying on tunicate predators. Green crabs are known to comsume prey from at least 158 genera and have been widely documented to decrease the diversity and biomass of estuarine communities (Locke et al 2007).
Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[3] Predation
[1] Rooting/Digging
Outcomes
[3] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of food web
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
[1] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
Management information
Prevention: Block anthropogenic pathways. Vectors such as ballast water accelerate the transport of populations into areas, and slowed expansion times can provide significant economic benefits (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

Physical: constructing local physical barriers such as fences, rafts and nets may help to keep crabs in a controlled area. Also altering fishing practices may be helpful. For example, overwintering seed so that it is larger when planted and in closed areas. In addition, manual removal, commercial harvesting, trapping, and parasitic castrators are all possible options for control (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

Biological: A crab native to North America, Callinectes sapidus has been proven to have a significant effect on the abundance of this species, having increasing effects at the southern end of the range (deRivera, Ruiz, Hines & Jivoff, 2005). The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, has a negative influence on the mussel consumption of the European green crab and thus, its resulting growth rates. The Asian shore crab also affects this species by consuming settling post-larvae and displacing juveniles from their refuge habitat under rocks (Griffen, Guy & Buck, 2008). Another possibility is to utilize biological control by \"guarding\" bivalve seed using the toadfish, Opanus tau. (Klassen & Locke, 2007).

The parasitic barnacle, Sacculina carcini is a potential biocontrol agent for introduced C. maenas populations. However laboratory host specificity testing of native California crabs showed that S. carcini larvae settled on, infected and killed all four of the native crab species tested. However the infection process was different in native crabs and S. carcini was not able to fully mature and produce reproductive sacs in native crabs, in contrast to C. maenas. Goddard et al emphasise the importance of weighing up the potential benefits of using S. carcini as a biological control agent, with the potential non-target impacts (Goddard et al. 2005).

\r\nOther biocontrol agents may have the potential to control green crabs, which include the parasitic isopod Portunion maenadis, the flatworm Fecampia erythrocephala and the egg predator Carcinonemertes carcinophila. However more information is needed on the host specificity and life history characteristics of these natural enemies (Goddard et al. 2005).

Locations
UNITED STATES
Management Category
Unknown
Bibliography
64 references found for Carcinus maenas

Managment information
Ahyong, Shane T., 2005. Range extension of two invasive crab species in eastern Australia: Carcinus maenas (Linnaeus) and Pyromaia tuberculata (Lockington). Marine Pollution Bulletin 50 (2005) 460�462
Carlton, James T. and Andrew N. Cohen., 2003. Episodic global dispersal in shallow water marine organisms: the case history of the European shore crabs Carcinus maenas and C. aestuarii. Journal of Biogeography, 30, 1809�1820
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Cohen, A. N. and Carlton, J. T. 1995. Nonindigenous aquatic species in a United States estuary: A case study of the biological invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. United States Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington D. C. and the National Sea Grant College Program: 246.
Cohen, Andrew N. 2005 Guide to the Exotic Species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA, Species Gallery Carcinus maenas (Yendo, 1907) Green crab, European green crab, European shore crab
Summary: Carcinus maenas available from: http://www.exoticsguide.org/species_pages/c_maenas.html [Accessed 27 June 2005 and 8 November 2005]
Guide to the exotic species of San Francisco Bay available from: http://www.exoticsguide.org
Cohen, A. N., J. T. Carlton and M. C. Fountain., 1995. Introduction, dispersal and potential impacts of the green crab Carcinus maenas in San Francisco Bay, California. Marine Biology Volume 122, Number 2 / April, 1995 225-237
Coutts, Ashley D. M., Kirrily M. Moore and Chad L. Hewitt., 2003. Ships� sea-chests: an overlooked transfer mechanism for non-indigenous marine species? Marine Pollution Bulletin. Volume 46, Issue 11, November 2003, Pages 1510-1513
Delaney, David G; Sperling, Corinne D; Adams, Christiaan S; Leung, Brian., 2008. Marine invasive species: validation of citizen science and implications for national monitoring networks. Biological Invasions. 10(1). JAN 2008. 117-128.
Gillespie, G. E; Phillips, A. C.; Paltzat, D. L.; Therriault, T. W., 2007. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 2700 - Status of the European Green Crab, Carcinus maenas, in British Columbia-2006. Canadian Technical Report of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. 2700 2007. 1-37,39,VI.
Grosholz, E. D. & G. M. Ruiz., 1996. Predicting the impact of introduced marine species: Lessons from the multiple invasions of the European green crab Carcinus maenas. Biological Conservation 78 (1996) 59-66
Grosholz, E. D. & G. M. Ruiz., 2004. Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Marine Biology Volume 122, Number 2 / April, 1995. 239-247
Hewitt, C.L, Campbell, M.L. and Gollasch, S. 2006. Alien Species in Aquaculture. Considerations for responsible use. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. viii + 32 pp.
Summary: This publication aims to first provide decision makers and managers with information on the existing international and regional regulations that address the use of alien species in aquaculture, either directly or indirectly; and three examples of national responses to this issue (New Zealand, Australia and Chile).
Available from: http://data.iucn.org/dbtw-wpd/edocs/2006-036.pdf [Accessed 22 September 2008]
Klassen, G. and A. Locke. 2007. A biological synopsis of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas. Can. Manuscr. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. no. 2818: vii+75pp.
Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand D., Biological Control of Marine Pests. Ecological Society of America. Ecology. 77(7). Oct. 1996. 1989-2000
Locke, Andrea; Hanson, J. Mark; Ellis, Karla M.; Thompson, Jason; Rochette, Remy., 2007. Invasion of the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence by the clubbed tunicate (Styela clava Herdman): Potential mechanisms for invasions of Prince Edward Island estuaries. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 342(1, Sp. Iss. SI). Mar 26 2007. 69-77.
Murphy, N. E. and C. L. Goggin., 2000. Genetic Discimination of Sacculind Parasites (Cirripedia, Rhizocephala): Implication for Control of Introduced Green Crab (Carcinus maenas). Journal of Crustcean Biology, 20(1): 153�157, 2000
Paille, N.; Lambert, J.; Simard, N.; Pereira, S., 2006. The green crab (Carcinus maenas): literature review and current status in the Magdalen Islands. Canadian Industry Report of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences. 276 2006. 1-36,VI.
Thresher, R.E., M. Werner, J.T. H�eg, I. Svane, H. Glenner, N.E. Murphy , C. Wittwer., 2000. Developing the options for managing marine pests: specificity trials on the parasitic castrator, Sacculina carcini, against the European crab, Carcinus maenas, and related species. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 254 (2000) 37�51
Williams, Susan L.; Grosholz, Edwin D., The invasive species challenge in estuarine and coastal environments: Marrying management and science. Estuaries & Coasts. 31(1). FEB 2008. 3-20.
Yamada, Sylvia Behrens and Laura Hauck., 2001. Field Identification of the European Green Crab Species Carcinus maenas and Carcinus aestaurii. Journal of Shellfish Research Vol 20 No 3. 905-912 2001.
Yamada, Sylvia Behrens; Gillespie, Graham E., 2008. Will the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) persist in the Pacific Northwest? ICES Journal of Marine Science. 65(5). JUL 2008. 725-729.
General information
Audet, Dominique; Miron, Gilles; Moriyasu, Mikio, 2008. Biological characteristics of a newly established green crab (Carcinus maenas) population in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Journal of Shellfish Research. 27(2). APR 2008. 427-441.
Behrens Yamada, S., and Gillespie, G. E. 2008. Will the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) persist in the Pacific Northwest? � ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65.
Bravo, Monica A.; Cameron, Beth; Metaxas, Anna., 2007. Salinity tolerance in the early larval stages of Carcinus maenas (Decapoda, Brachyura), a recent invader of the Bras d Or Lakes, Nova Scotia, Canada. Crustaceana (Leiden). 80(4). APR 2007. 475-490.
Breen, Erin; Metaxas, Anna., 2008. A comparison of predation rates by non-indigenous and indigenous crabs (Juvenile Carcinus maenas, juvenile Cancer irroratus, and adult Dyspanopeus sayi) in laboratory and field experiments. Estuaries & Coasts. 31(4). SEP 2008. 728-737.
Byers, James E.; Pringle, James M., 2008. Going against the flow: how marine invasions spread and persist in the face of advection. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 65(5). JUL 2008. 723-724
Cohen, A. N., Carlton, J. T. and Fountain, M. C. 1995. Introduction, dispersal and potential impacts of the Green Crab Carcinus maenas in San Francisco Bay, California. Mar. Biol. 122: 225-237.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Crust�ceos. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - crustaceans is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Crust%C3%A1ceos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Crust�ceos is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Crust%C3%A1ceos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Darling, John A.; Bagley, Mark J.; Roman, Joe; Tepolt, Carolyn K.; Geller, Jonathan B., Genetic patterns across multiple introductions of the globally invasive crab genus Carcinus. Molecular Ecology. 17(23). DEC 2008. 4992-5007.
DeGraaf, James D. and Tyrrell, Megan C., 2004. Comparison of the Feeding Rates of Two Introduced Crab Species, Carcinus maenas and Hemigrapsus sanguineus, on the Blue Mussel, Mytilus edulis. Northeastern Naturalis, Vol. 11 No. 2 (2004), pp. 163-166.
deRivera, Catherine E; Hitchcock, Natasha Gray; Teck, Sarah J.; Steves, Brian P.; Hines, Anson H.; Ruiz, Gregory M., Larval development rate predicts range expansion of an introduced crab. Marine Biology (Berlin). 150(6). MAR 2007. 1275-1288.
deRivera, Catherine E.; Ruiz, Gregory M.; Hines, Anson H.; Jivoff, Paul., 2005. Biotic resistance to invasion: Native predator limits abundance and distribution of an introduced crab. Ecology (Washington D C). 86(12). DEC 2005. 3364-3376.
Dudas, Sarah E.; Iain J. McGaw and John F. Dower., 2005. Selective crab predation on native and introduced bivalves in British Columbia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology Volume 325, Issue 1, 22 November 2005, Pages 8-17
Eastwood, Meg M; Donahue, Megan J.; Fowler, Amy E., Reconstructing past biological invasions: niche shifts in response to invasive predators and competitors. Biological Invasions. 9(4). JUN 2007. 397-407.
Edgell, Timothy C.; Rochette, Remy., 2008. Differential snail predation by an exotic crab and the geography of shell-claw covariance in the northwest Atlantic. Evolution. 62(5). MAY 2008. 1216-1228.
Griffen, Blaine D.; Guy, Travis; Buck, Julia C., 2008. Inhibition between invasives: a newly introduced predator moderates the impacts of a previously established invasive predator. Journal of Animal Ecology. 77(1). JAN 2008. 32-40.
Grosholz, E. D. and Ruiz, G. M. 1995. Spread and potential impact of the recently introduced European green crab, Carcinus maenas, in central California. Marine Biology 122: 239-247.
Hampton, S. L; Griffiths, C. L., 2007. Why Carcinus maenas cannot get a grip on South Africa s wave-exposed coastline. African Journal of Marine Sciences. 29(1). May 2007. 123-126.
Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Pedro J. Bar�n and Jos� Mar�a (Lobo) Orensanz., 2005. A prediction come true: the green crab invades the Patagonian coast. Biological Invasions Volume 7, Number 3 / May, 2005 547-552
Hidalgo, Fernando J.; Silliman, Brian R.; Bazterrica, Maria Cielo; Bertness, Mark D., 2007. Predation on the rocky shores of Patagonia, Argentina. Estuaries & Coasts. 30(5). OCT 2007. 886-894.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Carcinus maenas
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=98734 [Accessed December 31 2004]
Jamieson, G. S., Grosholz, E. D., Armstrong, D. A. and Elner, R. W. 1998. Potential ecological implications from the introduction of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linneaus), to British Columbia, Canada, and Washington, USA. Journal of Natural His
Jamieson, G.S; Grosholz, E.D; Armstrong, D.A; Elner, R.W., 1998. Potential ecological implications from the introduction of the European green crab, Carcinus maenas (Linneaus), to British Columbia, Canada, and Washington, USA. Journal of Natural History, Volume 32, Numbers 10-11, -11/October-November 1998 , pp. 1587-1598(12)
Jensen, Gregory C; McDonald, P. Sean; Armstrong, David A., 2007. Biotic resistance to green crab, Carcinus maenas, in California bays. Marine Biology (Berlin). 151(6). JUL 2007. 2231-2243.
Jensen, Gregory C., P. Sean McDonald, David A. Armstrong., 2002. East meets west: competitive interactions between green crab Carcinus maenas, and native and introduced shore crab Hemigrapsus spp. Marine Ecology Progress Series. Vol. 225: 251�262, 2002
Le Roux, P. J., Branch, G. M. and Joska, M. A. P. 1990. On the distribution, diet and possible impact of the invasive European shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) along the South African coast. South Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 9: 85-93.
Le Roux, P.J.; Branch, G.M.; Joska, M.A.P., On the distribution, diet and possible impact of the invasive European shore crab Carcinus maenas (L.) along the South African coast. South African Journal of Marine Science, Volume 9, Number 1, June 1990 , pp. 85-93(9)
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Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Carcinus maenas
Gollasch,
Stephan
Decapoda, Cirrepedia, invasion biology, ship sampling
Organization:
Institute for Marine Research
Address:
Duesternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany.
Phone:
+49 431 5973917
Fax:
+49 40 360 309 4767