Global invasive species database

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Common name
cione (French), doorschijnende zakpijp (Dutch), gelbe seescheide (German), vase tunicate (English), sea vase (English), yellow sea squirt (English), ascidie jaune (French)
Synonym
Ascidia viridiscens , (Brugiere, 1792)
Ciona canina , (Mueller, 1776)
Ciona diaphanea , (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834)
Ciona ocellata , (Agassiz, 1850)
Ciona pulchella , (Alder, 1863)
Ciona robusta , (Hoshino & Tokioka, 1967)
Ciona sociabilis , (Gunnerus, 1765)
Ciona tenella , (Stimpson, 1852)
Phallusia intestinalis , (Linnaeus, 1767)
Tethyum sociabile , (Gunnerus, 1765)
Similar species
Summary
The sea vase, Ciona intestinalis, is a tunicate that has such widespread distribution that its natural range continues to be a source of constant debate. A major pest on shellfish aquaculture production, C. intestinalis is a highly competitive species. There is evidence of C. intestinalis displacing native species, reducing biodiversity, and altering community properties in some invaded habitats. Control of C. intestinalis is difficult due to its rapid recolonisation, difficulty of containment and proximity to valuable aquaculture production that limits the control options able to be used.
Species Description
Like all Ciona spp. Ciona intestinalis has a sessile adult stage which lives attached to submerged hard substrates (Holland, 2002). C. intestinalis usually adheres vertically to these substrates, with its siphons pointing downward (Marins et al, 2009). The body of C. intestinalis is cylindrical, reaching to 100 - 150 mm in length, with its two siphons at the anterior end (Marins et al, 2009). All Ciona spp. are encased in a soft leathery tunic, which in the case of C. intestinalis, it is thin, soft, gelatinous, translucent, and clear to greenish coloured, making the internal organs visible (McDonald, 2004; Jackson, 2008; in Marins et al, 2009).

The inhalant anterior opening into the gut is larger and terminal with eight lobes while the atrial siphon is smaller and shorter with six lobes (McDonald, 2004). Larvae are free swimming and tadpole-like in appearance, with a dorsal nerve cord, a rudimentary brain and a notochord (Holland, 2002). After dispersal, larvae attach to a surface with their head after which the tail is reabsorbed and metamorphosis into a sessile filter-feeding adult occurs (Holland, 2002).

Once settled, C. intestinalis provide a poor substrate for other settlers, producing strong anti-microbial compounds that may restrict epibiosis and therefore limit recruitment of other species (Finslay & Smith, 1995; in Blum et al, 2007). The maximum reported lifespan of individuals is 2 years, but a more typical lifespan is 1 year (Jackson, 2000; in Blum et al, 2007).

Notes
The origin of Ciona intestinalis populations in Canada is a source of debate. Locke (2009) describes populations in sourthern Nova Scotia as cryptogenic while populations in Atlantic Canadian waters are non-indigenous. In contrast, Therriault & Herborg (2008a) describe populations in Atlantic Canadian waters as cryptogenic and populations in Pacific Canadian waters as non-indigenous.
Lifecycle Stages
Larvae are free swimming and tadpole-like in appearance, with a dorsal nerve cord, a rudimentary brain and a notochord (Holland, 2002). After dispersal over a period of 1 - 5 days (Dybern, 1965; in Howes et al, 2007), larvae attach to a surface with their head after which the tail is reabsorbed and metamorphosis into a sessile filter-feeding adult occurs (Holland, 2002).
Uses
Species of sea squirt, including Ciona spp., were popular models for embryological research in the early part of the twentieth century. Ciona spp. were instrumental in the discovery of cytoplasmic determinants, and were one of the first animals to have a cell lineage mapped (Holland, 2002). More recently, numerous developmentally expressed genes have been cloned from Ciona spp., hundreds of gene expression patterns are published, and there are powerful methods for introducing gene constructs into Ciona spp. embryos using electroporation (Holland, 2002).
Habitat Description
Ciona intestinalis lives attached to submerged rocks or other hard surfaces, such as ropes, chains and boat hulls (Holland, 2002). C. intestinalis has a cosmopolitan distribution, tolerates organic pollution and a wide range of enviornmental conditions. It is abundant in ports and marinas all over the world (Meliane, 2003; in Marins et al, 2009; Therriault & Herborg, 2008a).
Reproduction
As with all Ascidians, Ciona intestinalis is hermaphroditic and potentially capable of self-fertilisation (Silva & Smith, 2008). It is also a solitary (opposed to colonial) Ascidian which undergoes broadcast spawning (Silva & Smith, 2008). Each mature individual can potentially spawn once per day over the spawning period, releasing appproximately 500 eggs per day (Carver et al, 2003). Eggs are negatively buoyant and released in mucus strings that tangle and attach to nearby adults, contributing to the dense aggregations of adults (MarLIN, 2004; in McDonald, 2004).
Nutrition
Ciona intestinalis is a filter feeding organism, feeding on particles in the water column (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009). Clearance rates increase in an approximately linear relationship with increasing temperature with rates ranging from 4.6 ml per min per individual at 4 °C to about 29 ml per min per individual at 19 °C (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Under expert review

Publication date: 2007-05-07

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Ciona intestinalis. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1127 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
The most severe impacts of Ciona intestinalis worldwide have been on aquaculture production, causing substantial economic losses to the shellfish industry in particular (Robinson et al, 2005). Higher C. intestinalis densities are generally linked to lower mussel size and condition, with heavy fouling resulting in up to 50 % mussel mortality (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009). This is due mainly to inhibited growth and yield through food and space competition (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009; Rocha et al 2009) as well as increasing weight of gear, leading to difficulties in handling and processing (Locke et al., 2009b).

Additionally, as a highly competitive species within subtidal, epibenthic communities, C. intestinalis has also displaced native species, lowered biodiversity, and altered community properties in some invaded habitats (Blum et al 2007; Therriault & Herborg, 2008b).

Management Info
Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Ciona intestinalis. A brief summary can by found below.

Preventative measures: A risk assessment carried out by Hayes et al (2005) in Australia determined that C. intestinalis was one of top ten species in both its likelihood to be spread to uninfected bioregions by shipping and its damage potential. Preventative requirements on Prince Edward Island, Canada failed to stop the spread of C. intestinalis (Locke et al., 2009b). The only regulated vector in Canada is ballast water coming in from commercial shipping (Locke et al., 2009a)

Monitoring: Tunicate collectors were created and used to detect the presence and distribution of exotic tunicate species in the Bay of Fundy, including Ciona intestinalis (LeGresley et al, 2008).

Physical control: Aquaculture farmers surveyed by Clancey & Hinton (2003) revealed that physical removal methods such as hand scrubbing, scraping or high pressure spraying were the most common treatments used to remove tunicates that had become established on gear, however C. intestinalis quickly re-established populations within short periods.

Chemical control: A number of chemical treatments to control C. intestinalis have been trialed (Carver et al, 2003). While some like acetic acid and calcium hydroxide have shown promising results, chemicals have the potential to alter estuarine pH are and have been shown to be biocidal to a variety of non-target organisms such as species of bacteria, shrimp and fish (Locke et al, (2009b).

Biological control: Potential biological control agents include the rock crab, Cancer irroratus and green crab, Carcinus maenas. The use of crab predators for the control of C. intestinalis in aquaculture is limited for a number of reasons (Carver et al, 2003). Grazing species such as Littorina littorea and the shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus have also been trialled, with the shrimp in particular showing promising results (Dumont et al., 2009).

Cultural control: These refer to aquaculture management practices and generally include avoiding times of high C. intestinalis recruitment, changing or rotating the gear used or air drying depending on the species being farmed and the gear being used. More information on C. intestinalis recruitment patterns and population development is necessary to develop more effective management procedures (Ramsay, et al, 2009).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Ciona intestinalis
Informations on Ciona intestinalis has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Ciona intestinalis in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The most severe impacts of Ciona intestinalis worldwide have been on aquaculture production, causing substantial economic losses to the shellfish industry in particular (Robinson et al, 2005). Higher C. intestinalis densities are generally linked to lower mussel size and condition, with heavy fouling resulting in up to 50 % mussel mortality (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009). This is due mainly to inhibited growth and yield through food and space competition (Daigle & Herbinger, 2009; Rocha et al 2009) as well as increasing weight of gear, leading to difficulties in handling and processing (Locke et al., 2009b).

Additionally, as a highly competitive species within subtidal, epibenthic communities, C. intestinalis has also displaced native species, lowered biodiversity, and altered community properties in some invaded habitats (Blum et al 2007; Therriault & Herborg, 2008b).

Red List assessed species 0:
Mechanism
[6] Competition
[7] Bio-fouling
[2] Interaction with other invasive species
Outcomes
[6] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
  • [2] Habitat degradation
[12] Socio-Economic
  • [9] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
  • [3] Damage to infrastructures
Management information
Please follow this link for detailed information on the management of Ciona intestinalis. A brief summary can by found below.

Preventative measures: A risk assessment carried out by Hayes et al (2005) in Australia determined that C. intestinalis was one of top ten species in both its likelihood to be spread to uninfected bioregions by shipping and its damage potential. Preventative requirements on Prince Edward Island, Canada failed to stop the spread of C. intestinalis (Locke et al., 2009b). The only regulated vector in Canada is ballast water coming in from commercial shipping (Locke et al., 2009a)

Monitoring: Tunicate collectors were created and used to detect the presence and distribution of exotic tunicate species in the Bay of Fundy, including Ciona intestinalis (LeGresley et al, 2008).

Physical control: Aquaculture farmers surveyed by Clancey & Hinton (2003) revealed that physical removal methods such as hand scrubbing, scraping or high pressure spraying were the most common treatments used to remove tunicates that had become established on gear, however C. intestinalis quickly re-established populations within short periods.

Chemical control: A number of chemical treatments to control C. intestinalis have been trialed (Carver et al, 2003). While some like acetic acid and calcium hydroxide have shown promising results, chemicals have the potential to alter estuarine pH are and have been shown to be biocidal to a variety of non-target organisms such as species of bacteria, shrimp and fish (Locke et al, (2009b).

Biological control: Potential biological control agents include the rock crab, Cancer irroratus and green crab, Carcinus maenas. The use of crab predators for the control of C. intestinalis in aquaculture is limited for a number of reasons (Carver et al, 2003). Grazing species such as Littorina littorea and the shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus have also been trialled, with the shrimp in particular showing promising results (Dumont et al., 2009).

Cultural control: These refer to aquaculture management practices and generally include avoiding times of high C. intestinalis recruitment, changing or rotating the gear used or air drying depending on the species being farmed and the gear being used. More information on C. intestinalis recruitment patterns and population development is necessary to develop more effective management procedures (Ramsay, et al, 2009).

Bibliography
45 references found for Ciona intestinalis

Managment information
Bellas, Juan, 2005. Toxicity assessment of the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione using early developmental stages of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Biofouling, 2005; 21(5/6): 289 � 296
Carver, C. E.; Chisholm, A.; Mallet, A. L., 2003. Strategies to mitigate the impact of Ciona intestinalis (L.) biofouling on shellfish production. Journal of Shellfish Research. 22(3). December 2003. 621-631
Dumont, C. P.; Urriago, J. D.; Abarca, A.; Gaymer, C. F.; Thiel, M., 2009. The native rock shrimp Rhynchocinetes typus as a biological control of fouling in suspended scallop cultures. Aquaculture. 292(1-2). JUL 1 2009. 74-79.
Hayes, K., Sliwa, C., Migus, S., McEnnulty, F., Dunstan, P. 2005. National priority pests: Part II Ranking of Australian marine pests. An independent report undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage by CSIRO Marine Research.
Summary: This report is the final report of a two year study designed to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters (potential domestic target species) and those that are not found within Australian waters (potential international target species).
Available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/crimp/reports/PriorityPestsFinalreport.pdf [Accessed 25 May 2005]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Locke, Andrea, 2009. A screening procedure for potential tunicate invaders of Atlantic Canada. Aquatic Invasions (2009) Volume 4, Issue 1: 71-79
Summary: Available from: http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2009/AI_2009_4_1_Locke.pdf [Accessed May 20 2010]
Locke, Andrea and John Mark Hanson, 2009. Rapid response to non-indigenous species. 3. A proposed framework. Aquatic Invasions (2009) Volume 4, Issue 1: 259-273
Summary: Available from: http://www.aquaticinvasions.net/2009/AI_2009_4_1_Locke_Hanson2.pdf [Accessed May 20 2010]
Therriault, Thomas W.; Herborg, Leif-Matthias, 2008a. Predicting the potential distribution of the vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis in Canadian waters: informing a risk assessment. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 65(5). JUL 2008. 788-794.
Therriault, Thomas W.; Herborg, Leif-Matthias, 2008b. A qualitative biological risk assessment for vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis in Canadian waters: using expert knowledge. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 65(5). JUL 2008. 781-787.
Willis, Kate; Nutsford, S.; Floerl, O, 2007. Ecology and management of invasive solitary ascidians in New Zealand. Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
General information
Blum, Julia C.; Chang, Andrew L.; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Schenk, Michelle E.; Steinberg, Mia K.; Ruiz, Gregory M., 2007. The non-native solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.) depresses species richness. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 342(1, Sp. Iss. SI). MAR 26 2007. 5-14.
Brewin, I. Beryl, 1950. Ascidians of New Zealand Part IV. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand Vol 78 Pts 2 and 3 pp 344-353 August 1950
Summary: Available from: http://rsnz.natlib.govt.nz/volume/rsnz_78/rsnz_78_02_004090.pdf {Accessed 20 May 2010]
Castilla, Juan C.; Uribe, Malva; Bahamonde, Nibaldo; Clarke, Marcela; Desqueyroux-Faundez, Ruth; Kong, Ismael; Moyano, Hugo; Rozbaczylo, Nicolas; Santelices, Bernabe; Valdovinos, Claudio; Zavala, Patricio, 2005. Down under the southeastern Pacific: marine non-indigenous species in Chile. Biological Invasions. 7(2). MAR 2005. 213-232.
da Rocha, Rosana M.; Bonnet, Nadia Y. K., 2009. Introduced ascidians (Tunicata, Ascidiacea) in the Arquipelago de Alcatrazes, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Iheringia Serie Zoologia. 99(1). MAR 2009. 27-35.
Dijkstra, Jennifer; Sherman, Hillary; Harris, Larry G., 2007. The role of colonial ascidians in altering biodiversity in marine fouling communities. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 342(1, Sp. Iss. SI). MAR 26 2007. 169-171.
Getchis, Tessa S., 2006. What s Putting Some Aquaculturists in a Foul Mood? University of Connecticut Sea Grant
Summary: Available from: http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1017&context=wracklines [Accessed May 20 2010]
Gittenberger, Adriaan, 2007. Recent population expansions of non-native ascidians in The Netherlands. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 342 (2007) 122�126
Holland, W.H. Peter, 2002. Ciona. Current Biology Volume 12, Issue 18, 17 September 2002, Page R609
Howes, S.; Herbinger, C. M.; Darnell, P.; Vercaemer, B., 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of recruitment of the tunicate Ciona intestinalis on a mussel farm in Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 342(1, Sp. Iss. SI). MAR 26 2007. 85-92.
LeGresley, Murielle M.; Martin, Jennifer L.; McCurdy, Paul; Thorpe, Bruce; Chang, Blythe D., 2008. Non-indigenous tunicate species in the Bay of Fundy, eastern Canada. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 65(5). JUL 2008. 770-774.
Marins, Fl�via de Oliveira; Camila da Silva Oliveira; Nathalia Maria Vieira Maciel and Lu�s Felipe Skinner, 2009. Reinclusion of Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea: Cionidae) in Brazil�a methodological view. Marine Biodiversity Records (2009), 2:e112
McDonald, J., 2004. The invasive pest species Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1767) reported in a harbour in southern Western Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 49(9-10). November 2004. 868-870.
Monniot, C. 2010. Ciona intestinalis (Linnaeus, 1758). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species
Summary: Available from: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=103732 [Accessed May 20 2010]
Morton, Brian, 1987. Recent Marine Introductions into Hong Kong. Bulletin of Marine Science, Volume 41, Number 2, September 1987 , pp. 503-513(11)
Rajbanshi, Rubi; Pederson, Judith, 2007. Competition among invading ascidians and a native mussel. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology. 342(1, Sp. Iss. SI). MAR 26 2007. 163-165.
Ramsay, Aaron; Davidson, Jeff; Landry, Thomas; Arsenault, Garth, 2008. Process of invasiveness among exotic tunicates in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Biological Invasions. 10(8). DEC 2008. 1311-1316.
Robinson, T. B. ; Griffiths, C. L.; McQuaid, C. D.; Rius, M., 2005. Marine alien species of South Africa - status and impacts. African Journal of Marine Science. 27(1). JUN 2005. 297-306
Seo, Kyung Suk and Yoon Lee, 2009. Chapter 32 A First Assessment of Invasive Marine Species on Chinese and Korean Coasts IN G. Rilov, J.A. Crooks (eds.) Biological Invasions in Marine Ecosystems
Silva, Nathan; Smith, William C., 2008. Inverse Correlation of Population Similarity and Introduction Date for Invasive Ascidians. PLoS One. 3(6). JUN 25 2008. Article No.: e2552.
Contact
The following 1 contacts offer information an advice on Ciona intestinalis
Willis,
Dr. Kate
Organization:
Marine Biodiversity and Biosecurity National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research
Address:
10 Kyle Street Christchurch New Zealand
Phone:
+64 3 3437858
Fax:
:+64 3 3485548