Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
prev
  • Aedes albopictus on human skin (Photo: James Gathany, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, USA)
  • Aedes albopictus - resting male (Photo: Susan Ellis, Bugwood.org)
  • Aedes albopictus - feeding female (Photo: Susan Ellis, Bugwood.org)
  • Aedes albopictus - adult (Photo: Susan Ellis, Bugwood.org)
next
Common name
mosquito tigre (Spanish), forest day mosquito (English), Asian tiger mosquito (English), moustique tigre (French), tiger mosquito (English), tigermücke (German), zanzara tigre (Italian)
Synonym
Culex albopictus , Skuse, 1895
Culex albopictus , Skuse,1895
Similar species
Aedes aegypti
Summary
The Asian tiger mosquito is spread via the international tire trade (due to the rainwater retained in the tires when stored outside). In order to control its spread such trading routes must be highlighted for the introduction of sterilisation or quarantine measures. The tiger mosquito is associated with the transmission of many human diseases, including the viruses: Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis.
Species Description
Adults are known as tiger mosquitoes due to their conspicuous patterns of very black bodies with white stripes. Also, there is a distinctive single white band (stripe) down the length of the back. The body length is about 3/16-inch long. Like all mosquitoes, Asian tiger mosquitoes are small, fragile insects with slender bodies, one pair of narrow wings, and three pairs of long, slender legs. They have an elongate proboscis with which the female bites and feeds on blood.
Lifecycle Stages
The mosquito has four distinct life stages, which consist of egg, larva, pupa and adult. The first three stages occur in water. The adult is the freeflying insect that feeds on humans, other animals and the juice of plants (Lutz 2002).
Habitat Description
Aedes albopictus is a treehole mosquito, and so its breeding places in nature are small, restricted, shaded bodies of water surrounded by vegetation. It inhabits densely vegetated rural areas. However, its ecological flexibility allows it to colonize many types of man-made sites and urban regions. It may reproduce in cemetery flower pots, bird baths, soda cans and abandoned containers and water recipients. Tires are particularly useful for mosquito reproduction as they are often stored outdoors and effectively collect and retain rain water for a long time. The addition of decaying leaves from the neighboring trees produces chemical conditions similar to tree holes, which provides an excellent substrate for breeding. Ae. albopictus can also establish and survive throughout non-urbanized areas lacking any artificial containers, raising additional public health concerns for rural areas (Moore 1999, in Eritja et al. 2005).
Reproduction
The females lay desiccation-resistant eggs above the surface of the water in treeholes, tires or other water-holding containers. Their ability to breed in artificial containers facilitated their passive spread in the last decades through main transportation routes (Lounibos 2002 in Vezzani and Carbajo, 2008)They rely on rainfall to raise the water level and inundate the eggs for hatching. 150 to 250 eggs are laid per ovipostion. There are 1 to 4 ovipositions per female (ISSG 2004). The active reproductive period occurs in Japan and southwestern US from late Spring to early fall (Alto and Juliano 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). In Rome, larvae are found from March to November, but some females are active until December (Di Luca et al. 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). The eggs from strains colonizing temperate regions resist lower temperatures than those from tropical areas (Hanson and Craig 1995, in Eritja et al. 2005). Additionally, in these strains, the combination of short photoperiods and low temperatures can induce the females to lay diapausing eggs which can hibernate (Hanson and Craig 1995, in Eritja et al. 2005). This feature of diapause, which most other tropical mosquitoes lack may be one of the keys to the success of Ae. albopictus (Enserink, 2008). Overwintering is necessary north of the +10°C January isotherm (Mitchell 1995, Knudsen et al. 1996, in Eritja et al. 2005).
Nutrition
Obtains energy by feeding on plant nectar. Females require blood to produce eggs. Although primarily a mammalian feeder, will accept blood from a wide variety of hosts.
Pathway
During the summer of 2001, containerised shipments from China of the plant known as Lucky Bamboo (Dracaena spp.) were found to contain A. albopictus on inspection by quarantine officers on arrival at Los Angeles, USA (Linthicum 2001, in Eritja et al. 2005). This route of spread became an issue only after traders swapped from dry freight to low cost shipping routes (which required the plants to be shipped in standing water to preserve them for the longer voyage).Movement of moist vegetation, wet tyres or water containers that can hold eggs or larvae.Movement of moist vegetation, wet tires or water containers that hold eggs or larvae.The adult flight range is quite short. Therefore, most medium and long range colonization is the result of passive transportation by humans. This may occur, for example, in the movement of used tires in trucks (Eritja et al. 2005).

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates on management information with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Dr. Roger Eritja Spain

Publication date: 2009-10-27

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Aedes albopictus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=109 on 30-07-2016.

General Impacts
The tiger mosquito is an aggressive outdoor day biter that has a very broad host range and attacks humans, livestock, amphibians, reptiles and birds (Eritja et al. 2005). In one survey of biting rates a level of 30 to 48 bites per hour was recorded (Cancrini et al. 2003).

Mosquitoes are vectors of many relevant human diseases from Malaria to filariasis (caused by Dirofilaria immitis (Naya and Knight 1999, in Eritja et al. 2005)). Ae. albopictus may be a matter of particular concern as a bridge vector for the West Nile virus because it inhabits rural areas and has a wide host range including birds, so that it can readily pass enzootic cycles to humans.
There are a total of four Flaviviruses, ten Bunyaviruses and seven Alphaviruses that Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive to in laboratory conditions. These include Yellow Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Chikungunya and Sindbis (all of which are present in the Mediterranean). Of these Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive in field conditions to three Flaviviruses (Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis), six Bunyaviruses (Jamestown Canyon, Keystone, LaCrosse, Potosi, Cache Valley and Tensaw) and one Alphavirus (EEE). Other circulating viruses in the Mediterranean that are pathogenic to humans (but which the receptivity of Ae. albopictus has not been observed or tested in the laboratory) include Israel Turkey virus, Tahyna and Batai. However the extent to which Ae. albopictus can transmit diseases in the real world is unclear and depends on many factors including numbers, whether it bites humans, whether it takes blood meals from multiple people and how effectively the virus makes it from the mosquito’s gut to its salivary glands. Currently there is solid evidence for the tiger mosquito’s role in the transmission of only two diseases: Dengue and Chikungunya (Enserink, 2008). However, the recent outbreak Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean vectored by Ae. albopictus has been shown to be caused by a single nucleotide mutation in the virus that allowed it to more effectively use the tiger mosquito as a vector. Similar scenarios could happen with Dengue and other viruses that the mosquito was shown to transmit in the lab (Enserink, 2008).
Ae. albopictus has been demonstrated to have a competitive advantage over a number of other mosquito species including Ae. Aegypti (O’Meara et al. 1995; Juliano, 1998; Lounibos, 2002; Braks et al. 2004 in Vezzani and Carbajo, 2008). Ae. aegypti is an even more important vector of diseases than Ae. albopictus. This is largely because Ae. albopictus has such as wide host range compared to Ae. aegypti which feeds almost exclusively on humans (Enserink, 2008). Because diseases like Dengue affect only primates, if Ae. albopictus feeds on a lizard or bird after a human, the disease is not transmitted. Thus the actual consequence of the potential displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in terms of diseases transmission remains unknown in many regions. Professor Gubler predicts that the spread of Ae. albopictus will actually result in a net gain for public health because in many places, it is displacing Ae. aegypti populations (Enserink, 2008). Indeed there are many studies that report Ae. albopictus outcompeting mosquito larvae of other species such as Ochlerotatus triseriatus, a vector for La Crosse Virus (Bevins, 2008) and Ae. japonicas (Armistead et al. 2008). However Didier Fontenille of the Institute of Research for Development in Montpellier, France disagrees with Gubler citing outbreaks of Chikungunya in the Indian Ocean Islands, La Reunion island and Italy as evidence of the tiger mosquito’s potential devastating impacts (Enserink, 2008).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Starting in 1992, several countries in South America (Venezuela, Chile, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Argentina and Brazil) have dictated embargoes on used tire importations, in an attempt to prevent mosquito and dengue introduction into areas where a potential vector, A. aegypti, is already present (Eritja et al. 2005).
Source reduction strategies (such as larval or adult control within tire dumps) have proven to be difficult and relatively inefficient due to the shape and abundance of the water surfaces (Eritja et al. 2005).
Quarantine and inspection measures in Australia have allowed detection of larval introductions of the tiger mosquito (Eritja et al. 2005). As immediate control measures have been applied, Ae. albopictus has not as of yet become established on the continent (R. Russell, pers. comm., in Eritja et al. 2005).
In the Netherlands horticultural companies have taken steps to reduce the risk, for instance, by treating shipments before they leave China (Enserink, 2008).
Predicting the potential spread of the tiger mosquito may be important in alerting the appropriate authorities to take preventative action. Areas at risk in Europe would have mean winter temperatures higher than 0°, at least 500mm rainfall per year and a warm month mean temperature of 20°. It is believed that less than 300mm rainfall per year would make establishment extremely unlikely. (Eritja et al. 2005).

Physical Control: Ae. albopictus is not readily captured by most traps, even those that catch other mosquito species. However, recently there are new traps being developed: BG-SentinelTM and the Collapsible Mosquito Trap (CMT-20TM). These traps use ammonia, fatty acids and lactic acids to produce a smell similar to that of a human body in an upward air current. The addition of carbon dioxide greatly improves the number of mosquitoes captured. When carbon dioxide is added these traps collect about 33 times more than standard light traps (Meeraus et al. 2008).

Biological Control: Bioengineering is a major focus of research in agricultural and public health entomology. Oxford Insect Technologies (http://www.oxitec.com/) have created a strain of Ae. aegypti with a dominant tetracycline-repressible gene. The aim is to release transgenic males in the field; the progeny of matings with wild females will die. Ultimately we will select a sex-linked strain that will kill only female progeny, providing a “driver” for the lethal gene in the field. Current research is studying the ‘fitness’ of such transgenic strains and will also attempt to engineer strains of Ae. albopictus (Insects and Infectious Diseases, 2006).
Another form of biological control that is currently being investigated is use of an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisoplia. Results from laboratory studies showed that longevity of M. anisopliae-infected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus is significantly lower than that of uninfected mosquitoes. The challenge is to find and apply an effective methodology that will result in reduced vectorial capacity of mosquitoes in the field (Scholte et al. 2008).

Integrated Management: In Switzerland, monitoring systems consisted of over 300 strategically positioned oviposition traps along main traffic axes, including parking lots within industrial complexes, border crossings and shopping centres.. Bi-weekly control visits to all traps were conducted between April and November 2007. As soon as eggs were detected, the surrounding vegetation within a perimeter of about 100 metres was sprayed with permethrin against adult mosquitoes. Stagnant water was treated with Bacillus thuringiensis and in some cases with diflubenzuron to control the larval stages (Wymann et al. 2008).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Aedes albopictus
Informations on Aedes albopictus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Aedes albopictus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
The tiger mosquito is an aggressive outdoor day biter that has a very broad host range and attacks humans, livestock, amphibians, reptiles and birds (Eritja et al. 2005). In one survey of biting rates a level of 30 to 48 bites per hour was recorded (Cancrini et al. 2003).

Mosquitoes are vectors of many relevant human diseases from Malaria to filariasis (caused by Dirofilaria immitis (Naya and Knight 1999, in Eritja et al. 2005)). Ae. albopictus may be a matter of particular concern as a bridge vector for the West Nile virus because it inhabits rural areas and has a wide host range including birds, so that it can readily pass enzootic cycles to humans.
There are a total of four Flaviviruses, ten Bunyaviruses and seven Alphaviruses that Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive to in laboratory conditions. These include Yellow Fever, Rift Valley Fever, Chikungunya and Sindbis (all of which are present in the Mediterranean). Of these Ae. albopictus is known to be receptive in field conditions to three Flaviviruses (Dengue, West Nile and Japanese Encephalitis), six Bunyaviruses (Jamestown Canyon, Keystone, LaCrosse, Potosi, Cache Valley and Tensaw) and one Alphavirus (EEE). Other circulating viruses in the Mediterranean that are pathogenic to humans (but which the receptivity of Ae. albopictus has not been observed or tested in the laboratory) include Israel Turkey virus, Tahyna and Batai. However the extent to which Ae. albopictus can transmit diseases in the real world is unclear and depends on many factors including numbers, whether it bites humans, whether it takes blood meals from multiple people and how effectively the virus makes it from the mosquito’s gut to its salivary glands. Currently there is solid evidence for the tiger mosquito’s role in the transmission of only two diseases: Dengue and Chikungunya (Enserink, 2008). However, the recent outbreak Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean vectored by Ae. albopictus has been shown to be caused by a single nucleotide mutation in the virus that allowed it to more effectively use the tiger mosquito as a vector. Similar scenarios could happen with Dengue and other viruses that the mosquito was shown to transmit in the lab (Enserink, 2008).
Ae. albopictus has been demonstrated to have a competitive advantage over a number of other mosquito species including Ae. Aegypti (O’Meara et al. 1995; Juliano, 1998; Lounibos, 2002; Braks et al. 2004 in Vezzani and Carbajo, 2008). Ae. aegypti is an even more important vector of diseases than Ae. albopictus. This is largely because Ae. albopictus has such as wide host range compared to Ae. aegypti which feeds almost exclusively on humans (Enserink, 2008). Because diseases like Dengue affect only primates, if Ae. albopictus feeds on a lizard or bird after a human, the disease is not transmitted. Thus the actual consequence of the potential displacement of Ae. aegypti by Ae. albopictus in terms of diseases transmission remains unknown in many regions. Professor Gubler predicts that the spread of Ae. albopictus will actually result in a net gain for public health because in many places, it is displacing Ae. aegypti populations (Enserink, 2008). Indeed there are many studies that report Ae. albopictus outcompeting mosquito larvae of other species such as Ochlerotatus triseriatus, a vector for La Crosse Virus (Bevins, 2008) and Ae. japonicas (Armistead et al. 2008). However Didier Fontenille of the Institute of Research for Development in Montpellier, France disagrees with Gubler citing outbreaks of Chikungunya in the Indian Ocean Islands, La Reunion island and Italy as evidence of the tiger mosquito’s potential devastating impacts (Enserink, 2008).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
Mechanism
[2] Competition
[8] Disease transmission
Outcomes
[2] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [2] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Plant/animal health
[6] Socio-Economic
  • [6] Human health
Management information
Preventative measures: Starting in 1992, several countries in South America (Venezuela, Chile, Bermuda, Costa Rica, Argentina and Brazil) have dictated embargoes on used tire importations, in an attempt to prevent mosquito and dengue introduction into areas where a potential vector, A. aegypti, is already present (Eritja et al. 2005).
Source reduction strategies (such as larval or adult control within tire dumps) have proven to be difficult and relatively inefficient due to the shape and abundance of the water surfaces (Eritja et al. 2005).
Quarantine and inspection measures in Australia have allowed detection of larval introductions of the tiger mosquito (Eritja et al. 2005). As immediate control measures have been applied, Ae. albopictus has not as of yet become established on the continent (R. Russell, pers. comm., in Eritja et al. 2005).
In the Netherlands horticultural companies have taken steps to reduce the risk, for instance, by treating shipments before they leave China (Enserink, 2008).
Predicting the potential spread of the tiger mosquito may be important in alerting the appropriate authorities to take preventative action. Areas at risk in Europe would have mean winter temperatures higher than 0°, at least 500mm rainfall per year and a warm month mean temperature of 20°. It is believed that less than 300mm rainfall per year would make establishment extremely unlikely. (Eritja et al. 2005).

Physical Control: Ae. albopictus is not readily captured by most traps, even those that catch other mosquito species. However, recently there are new traps being developed: BG-SentinelTM and the Collapsible Mosquito Trap (CMT-20TM). These traps use ammonia, fatty acids and lactic acids to produce a smell similar to that of a human body in an upward air current. The addition of carbon dioxide greatly improves the number of mosquitoes captured. When carbon dioxide is added these traps collect about 33 times more than standard light traps (Meeraus et al. 2008).

Biological Control: Bioengineering is a major focus of research in agricultural and public health entomology. Oxford Insect Technologies (http://www.oxitec.com/) have created a strain of Ae. aegypti with a dominant tetracycline-repressible gene. The aim is to release transgenic males in the field; the progeny of matings with wild females will die. Ultimately we will select a sex-linked strain that will kill only female progeny, providing a “driver” for the lethal gene in the field. Current research is studying the ‘fitness’ of such transgenic strains and will also attempt to engineer strains of Ae. albopictus (Insects and Infectious Diseases, 2006).
Another form of biological control that is currently being investigated is use of an entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisoplia. Results from laboratory studies showed that longevity of M. anisopliae-infected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus is significantly lower than that of uninfected mosquitoes. The challenge is to find and apply an effective methodology that will result in reduced vectorial capacity of mosquitoes in the field (Scholte et al. 2008).

Integrated Management: In Switzerland, monitoring systems consisted of over 300 strategically positioned oviposition traps along main traffic axes, including parking lots within industrial complexes, border crossings and shopping centres.. Bi-weekly control visits to all traps were conducted between April and November 2007. As soon as eggs were detected, the surrounding vegetation within a perimeter of about 100 metres was sprayed with permethrin against adult mosquitoes. Stagnant water was treated with Bacillus thuringiensis and in some cases with diflubenzuron to control the larval stages (Wymann et al. 2008).

Locations
ARGENTINA
AUSTRALIA
BERMUDA
BRAZIL
CHILE
COSTA RICA
FRANCE
GREECE
ITALY
SWITZERLAND
UNITED STATES
VENEZUELA
Management Category
Prevention
Control
None
Monitoring
Bibliography
50 references found for Aedes albopictus

Managment information
Cancrini, G., di Regalbono, A., Frangipane, Ricci, I., Tessarin, C., Gabrielli, S. and M., Pietrobelli. 2003. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy, Veterinary Parasitology 118(3-4): abstract.
Cancrini, G., di Regalbono, A., Frangipane, Ricci, I., Tessarin, C., Gabrielli, S. and M., Pietrobelli. 2003. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy, Veterinary Parasitology 118(3-4): abstract. [Accessed 20 February 2006, from Biological Abstracts (online database)]
Center for Disease Control. 2004. Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. Arboviral Encephalitides. Atlanta, Georgia.
Summary: Discusses the mosquito as a vector for diseases and the probable spread of them throughout the United States.
Facchinelli, L., Koenraadt, C.J.M., Fanello, C., Kijchalao, U., Valerio, L., Jones, J.W., Scott, T.W. & Della Torre, A. 2008 Evaluation of a sticky trap for collectingAedes (Stegomyia) adults in a dengue-endemic area in Thailand. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(6): 904-909.
Insects and Infectious Diseases. 2006. Accessed 12 December 2008 from: http://www.pasteur.fr/recherche/RAR/RAR2006/Imi-en.html
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Lounibos, L.P. 2002. Invasions by Insect Vectors of Human Disease, Annual Review of Entomology 47.
Meeraus, W.H., Armistead, J.S. & Arias, J.R. 2008. Field comparison of novel and gold standard traps for collecting Aedes albopictus in Northern Virginia. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 24(2): 244�248.
Romi, R., Toma, L., Severini, F., Di Luca, M. 2003. Susceptibility of Italian populations of Aedes albopictus to temephos and to other insecticides, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(4): abstract.
Scholte, E., Takken, W. & Knols, B.G.J. 2007. Infection of adult Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes with the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae. Acta Tropica 102: 151-158.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Walker, K. 2006. Asian Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) Pest and Diseases Image Library. Updated on 29/08/2006 2:40:04 PM.
Summary: PaDIL (Pests and Diseases Image Library) is a Commonwealth Government initiative, developed and built by Museum Victoria s Online Publishing Team, with support provided by DAFF (Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry) and PHA (Plant Health Australia), a non-profit public company. Project partners also include Museum Victoria, the Western Australian Department of Agriculture and the Queensland University of Technology. The aim of the project is: 1) Production of high quality images showing primarily exotic targeted organisms of plant health concern to Australia. 2) Assist with plant health diagnostics in all areas, from initial to high level. 3) Capacity building for diagnostics in plant health, including linkage developments between training and research organisations. 4) Create and use educational tools for training undergraduates/postgraduates. 5) Engender public awareness about plant health concerns in Australia. PaDIL is available from : http://www.padil.gov.au/aboutOverview.aspx, this page is available from: http://www.padil.gov.au/viewPestDiagnosticImages.aspx?id=83 [Accessed 6 October 2006]
Zhang, L.Y. & Lei, C.L. 2008. Evaluation of sticky ovitraps for the surveillance of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) and the screening of oviposition attractants from organic infusions. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 102(5): 399-407.
General information
Aranda, C., Eritja, R. & Roiz, D., 2006. First record and establishment of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Spain. Med. Vet. Ent. 20: 150-152
Beilharz, M. 2009. Climate change raises the disease threat. ECOS 146: 12-13.
Benedict, M.Q., Levine, R.S., Hawley, W.A. & Lounios, L.P. 2007. Spread of the tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 7(1): 76-85.
Berry, R.L. and Lyon, W.F. 1991.Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. Entomology. Asian Tiger Mosquito. HYG-2148-98
Summary: A bit more information than just a fact sheet. A report on the mosquito and the effects it has on the state of Ohio.
Berry, R.L. and Lyon, W.F. 1991.Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet. Entomology. Asian Tiger Mosquito. HYG-2148-98
Summary: A report on the mosquito and the effects it has on the state of Ohio.
Bevins, S. 2008. Invasive mosquitoes, larval competition, and indirect effects on the vector competence of native mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae). Biological Invasions 10: 1109-1117. Halstead, S.B. 2007. Dengue. Lancet 370: 1644-52.
Cancrini, G., di Regalbono, A., Frangipane, Ricci, I., Tessarin, C., Gabrielli, S. and Pietrobelli, M. 2003. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy, Veterinary Parasitology 118(3-4): abstract.
Cancrini, G., di Regalbono, A., Frangipane, Ricci, I., Tessarin, C., Gabrielli, S. and Pietrobelli, M. 2003. Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy, Veterinary Parasitology 118(3-4): abstract. [Accessed 20 February 2006, from Biological Abstracts (online database)]
Center for Disease Control. 2004. Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases. Arboviral Encephalitides. Atlanta, Georgia.
Summary: Discusses the mosquito as a vector for diseases and the probable spread of them throughout the United State.
Chang, L., Hsu, E., Teng, H. & Ho, C. 2007. Differential Survival of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) Larvae Exposed to Low Temperatures in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Entomology 44(2): 205-210.
Cignini, B., Di Domenicantonio, R., Chionne, M. & Scirocchi, A. 2008. Decennial experience of the Municipality of Rome in the fight against Asian Tiger Mosquito. Parassitologia 50, 105-107.
Coffinet, T., Mourou, J.R., Pradines, B., Toto, J.C., Jarjaval, F., Amalvict, R., Kombila, M., Carnevale, P. & Pages, F. 2008. First record of Aedes albopictus in Gabon. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23(4),: 471-472.
Contini, C. 2007 Aedes albopictus in Sardinia: reappearance or widespread colonization? Parassitologia 49: 33-35.
Derraik, J.G.B. 2004. Exotic mosquitoes in New Zealand: a review of species intercepted, their pathways and ports of entry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 28(5): 433-444.
Enserink, M. 2008. A mosquito goes global. Science 320: 864-866.
Eritja, R., Escosa, R., Lucientes, J., Marque, E., Molina, R., Roiz, D. and Ruiz, S. 2005. Worldwide Invasion of Vector Mosquitoes: Present European Distribution and Challenges for Spain, Biological Invasions 7: 87�97.
Eritja, R., Escosa, R., Lucientes, J., Marque, E., Molina, R., Roiz, D. and Ruiz, S. 2005. Worldwide Invasion of Vector Mosquitoes: Present European Distribution and Challenges for Spain, Biological Invasions 7: 87�97.
Flacio E, L�thy P, Patocchi N, Guidotti F, Tonolla M, Peduzzi R. Primo ritrovamento di Aedes albopictus in Svizzera. Bollettino della Societ� ticinese di Scienze Naturali 2004;92:141-142
Haddad, N., Harbach, R.E., Chamat, S. & Bouharoun-Tayoun, H. 2007. Presence of Aedes albopictus in Lebanon and Syria. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23(2): 226-228.
Integrated Taxonomic Information System
Summary: This website lists the scientific name, taxonomy , nomenclature and taxonomic hierarchy of the species.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2004. Online Database Aedes albopictus
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=126244 [Accessed February 7 2008]
Lutz, N. 2002. Ecoaccess. North Carolina Central University.
Summary: Nick Lutz was a mosquito control officer for Orange County and a student at the same time. The paper he writes brings information about the species and his job together and it makes for an interesting point of view.
Available from: http://www.ibiblio.org/ecoaccess/info/wildlife/pubs/asiantigermosquitoes.html [Accessed 17 November 2009]
MAF (Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry)/Biosecurity New Zealand. 2007. No further evidence of Asian Tiger Mosquito found. Accessed 11 December 2008 from: http://www.biosecurity.govt.nz/media/24-05-07/asian-tiger-mosquito
Phillips, M.L. 2008. Dengue Reborn: Widespread resurgence of a resilient vector. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(9): 382-388.
Ratsitorahina, M., Harisoa, J., Ratovonjato, J., Biacabe,S., Reynes, J., Zeller, H., Raoelina, Y., Talarmin, A., Richard, V. & Soares, J.L. 2008. Outbreak of Dengue and Chikungunya fevers, Toamasina, Madagascar, 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14(7): 1135-1137.
Reiskind, M.H., Pesko, K., Westbrook, C.J., Mores, C.N. 2008. Susceptibility of Florida mosquitoes to infection with Chikungunya virus. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 78(3): 422-425.
Reiter, P., Fontenille, D. & Paupy, C. 2006. Aedes albopictus as an epidemic vector of chikungunya virus: another emerging problem? The Lancet, 6: 463-464
Richards, S.L., Ghosh, S.K., Zeichner, B.C. & Apperson, C.S. 2008. Impact of Source Reduction on the Spatial Distribution of Larvae and Pupae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Suburban Neighborhoods of a Piedmont Community in North Carolina. Journal of Medical Entomology 45(4): 617-628.
Roiz, D., Eritja, R., Molina, R., Melero-Alicibar, R. & Lucientes, J. 2008. Initial Distribution Assessment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Barcelona, Spain, Area. Journal of Medical Entomology 45(3): 347-352.
Samanidou-Voyadjoglou, A., Patsoula, E., Spanakos, G. & Vakalis, N.C., 2005. Confirmation of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Greece. European Mosquito Bulletin, 19, 10�12.
Scholte, E.J., Dijkstra, E., Blok, H., Devries, A., Takken, W., Hofhuis, A., Koopmans, M., Deboer, A. & Reusken, C.B.E.M. 2008. Accidental importation of the mosquito Aedes albopictus into the Netherlands: a survey of mosquito distribution and the presence of dengue virus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 22: 352-358.
Schweigmann, N., Vezzani, D., Orellano, P., Kuruc, J., and Boffi, R. 2004. Aedes albopictus in an area of Misiones, Argentina, Revista de Saude Publica 38(1): abstract. D20
Schweigmann, N., Vezzani, D., Orellano, P., Kuruc, J., and Boffi, R. 2004. Aedes albopictus in an area of Misiones, Argentina, Revista de Saude Publica 38(1): abstract. D20[Accessed 20 February 2006, from Biological Abstracts (online database)]
Severini, F., Di Luca, M., Toma, L., & Romi, R. (2008). Aedes albopictus in Rome: results and perspectives after 10 years of monitoring. Parassitologia 50: 121-123.
Vazeille, M., Moutailler, S., Pages, F., Jarjaval, F. & Failloux, A. 2008. Introduction of Aedes albopictus in Gabon: what consequences for dengue and chikungunya transmission? Tropical Medicine and International Health 13(9): 1176-1179.
Vezzani, D. & Carbajo, A.E. 2008. Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and dengue in Argentina: current knowledge and future directions. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 103(1): 66-74.
Wymann, M.N., Flacio, E., Radczuweit, S., Patocchi, N. & Luthy, P. (2008). Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) a threat for Switzerland? Eurosurveillance 13: 1-3.
Contact
The following 6 contacts offer information an advice on Aedes albopictus
Bellini,
Romeo
Organization:
Via Argini Nord 3351
40014 Crevalcore, Italy
Email:
Address:
0039-051-873436
Phone:
0039-051-6621109
Fax:
rbellini@caa.it
Eritja,
Roger
Organization:
Address:

Phone:
Fax:
Gubler,
Duane
Research Areas: arboviruses , zoonotic viruses, vector borne diseases, and emerging infectious diseases epidemiology and control
Organization:
Professor and Chair of Tropical Medicine
Address:
Tropical Medicine, Medical Microbiology and Pharmacology; Asia-Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases. 651 Ilalo Street
Kaka ako Campus, BSB 320
Honolulu HI 96813
Phone:
808-692-1606
Fax:
808-692-1979
Reiter,
Paul
Organization:
Professor of Medical Entomology at the Pasteur Institute, France.
Address:

Phone:
Fax:
Samanidou,
Anna
Contact expert for Greece.
Organization:
Medical Entomologist Department of Parasitology, Entomology and Tropical Diseases National School of Public Health
Address:
196 Alexandras Ave. GR115 21 Athens, Greece
Phone:
+30210 6462 045
Fax:
+30210 9421921
Wheeler,
Alan
Has run elimination campaign against Aedes albopictus on the Cayman Islands since its discovery in the 1990s.
Organization:
Cayman Islands Mosquito Research and Control Unit
Address:
P.O. Box 486, Grand Cayman KY1-1106, CAYMAN ISLANDS
Phone:
345-949-2557
Fax:
345-949-8912