Global invasive species database

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Common name
spiny fiddlewood (English), Florida fiddlewood (English), fiddlewood (English), masese (Fijian, Fiji)
Synonym
Citharexylum albicaule , Turcz.
Citharexylum bahamense , Millsp. Ex Britton
Citharexylum broadwayi , O.E. Shultz ex. Urb.
Citharexylum cinereum , J.F. Gmel
Citharexylum cinereum , L.
Citharexylum coriaceum , Desf.
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. var. subvillosum (Moldenke)
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. forma subvillosum (Moldenke) Moldenke
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. var. villosum (Jacq.) O.E. Shultz
Citharerxylum fruticosum , L.
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. var. smallii Moldenke
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. forma subserratum (Sw.) Moldenke
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. forma bahamense (Millsp. Ex. Britton) Moldenke
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. var. brittonii Moldenke
Citharexylum fruticosum , L. var. subserratum (Sw.) Moldenke
Citharexylum hybridum , Moldenke
Citharexylum molle , Salisb
Citharexylum pentandrum , Vent.
Citharexylum polystachyum , Turcz.
Citharexylum quadrangulare , Jacq.
Citharexylum spinosum , L. forma villosum (Jacq.)
Citharexylum spinosum , L. forma subserratum (Sw.)
Citharexylum spinosum , L. forma smallii (Moldenke)
Citharexylum subserratum , Sw.
Citharexylum surrectum , Griseb.
Citharexylum teres , Jacq.
Citharexylum tomentosum , Poir.
Citharexylum villosum , Jacq.
Similar species
Summary
Citharexylum spinosum (fiddlewood) is a tree that is commonly planted for its multi-seasonal aesthetic appeal. After escape, it can cause problems by forming dense thickets that choke out other vegetation. In addition, its roots are very aggressive and cause damage to pipes and underground services. Efforts to monitor this plant are underway in many areas, namely Hawaii, where it has spread to several islands.
Species Description
Citharexylum spinosum is an evergreen tree that can be up to 50 feet tall. It has no spines and has smooth, quadrangular twigs. Its leaves are up to 8 inches long, smooth and oval or oblong. The leaves also narrow at the base to a short stem, are coarse-toothed or entire, pointed at the tip, and are opposite or in groups of three. \"Fragrant, white, tubular five-parted flowers, each about 0.3 inch long, are borne in narrow clusters, which are 4 to 12 inches long, branched below or not.\" (PIER, 1999). Flowers on C. spinosum are functionally unisexual and the trees are dioecious. The fruits of Citharexylum spinosum are globose, 0.25 in (0.60cm) in diameter, immaturely red or orange and purplish to black when ripe. The leaves turn a browish gold colour between February and May. (Starret al, 2003). The bark of C. spinosum is light brown, and becomes fissured as it ages. (IRREC, 2003). Fiddlewood forms crowded stands even in undisturbed habitats. (Smith, 1998).
Notes
During the dry season, Citharexylum spinosum is deciduous. (Smith, 1998)
Uses
Citharexylum spinosum is cultivated as a street tree and is a popular ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions. The leaves of C. spinosum turn orange prior to dropping, which is part of the reason for its appeal. The tree is also attractive because of its fragrant white flowers. People in the Carribean use the wood of C. spinosum to make stringed instruments and cabinets. (Starr et al, 2003).
Habitat Description
Citharexylum spinosum generally grows in wet habitats below 500 metres. It has been found in dry habitats at different elevations, where it adapts by dropping its leaves during the dry season. (Smith, 1985).
Reproduction
Citharexylum spinosum can be propagated by seeds or cuttings. (Starret al, 2003).

Principal source: Starr, F., Starr, K., & L. Loope. 2003. Citharexylum spinosum. Plants of Hawaii Reports.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2006-12-12

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Citharexylum spinosum. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1059 on 18-08-2017.

General Impacts
Citharexylum spinosum is able to form a dense canopy, choking out other vegetation. (Starr et al, 2003). Because of its aggressive roots, which can damage pipes and other underground services, C. spinosum is no longer desirable in Australia and other parts of the world. (The State of Queensland, 2006) \r\nC. spinosum is able to form a dense canopy, choking out other vegetation. (Starr et al, 2003). Because of its aggressive roots, which can damage pipes and other underground services, C. spinosum is no longer desirable in Australia and other parts of the world. (The State of Queensland, 2006)
Management Info
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Citharexylum spinosum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)\".

Cultural: The public should be informed not to plant C. spinosum. (Starret al, 2003).

Physical: If cut and not treated, C. spinosum will certainly grow back.

Chemical: Chemicals will likely play a role in controlling C. spinosum because it grows back when cut to the ground. (Starret al, 2003).

Biological: A treehopper Aconophora compressa was released in 1995 in Australia for control of Lantana camara, a weedy species in the same family as C. spinosum. Several populations of A. compressa were found on C. spinosum after their release, and have been damaging the tree and other plants since then. (The State of Queensland, 2006; Dhileepan et al. 2006).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Citharexylum spinosum
NATIVE RANGE
  • bahamas
  • greater antilles
  • guyana
  • hispaniola
  • lesser antilles
  • suriname
  • united states
  • venezuela
Informations on Citharexylum spinosum has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Citharexylum spinosum in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Citharexylum spinosum is able to form a dense canopy, choking out other vegetation. (Starr et al, 2003). Because of its aggressive roots, which can damage pipes and other underground services, C. spinosum is no longer desirable in Australia and other parts of the world. (The State of Queensland, 2006) \r\nC. spinosum is able to form a dense canopy, choking out other vegetation. (Starr et al, 2003). Because of its aggressive roots, which can damage pipes and other underground services, C. spinosum is no longer desirable in Australia and other parts of the world. (The State of Queensland, 2006)
Red List assessed species 0:
Management information
Preventative measures: A Risk Assessment of Citharexylum spinosum for Hawai‘i and other Pacific islands was prepared by Dr. Curtis Daehler (UH Botany) with funding from the Kaulunani Urban Forestry Program and US Forest Service. The alien plant screening system is derived from Pheloung et al. (1999) with minor modifications for use in Pacific islands (Daehler et al. 2004). The result is a score of 7 and a recommendation of: \"reject the plant for import (Australia) or species likely to be of high risk (Pacific)\".

Cultural: The public should be informed not to plant C. spinosum. (Starret al, 2003).

Physical: If cut and not treated, C. spinosum will certainly grow back.

Chemical: Chemicals will likely play a role in controlling C. spinosum because it grows back when cut to the ground. (Starret al, 2003).

Biological: A treehopper Aconophora compressa was released in 1995 in Australia for control of Lantana camara, a weedy species in the same family as C. spinosum. Several populations of A. compressa were found on C. spinosum after their release, and have been damaging the tree and other plants since then. (The State of Queensland, 2006; Dhileepan et al. 2006).

Locations
AUSTRALIA
Management Category
Prevention
Bibliography
15 references found for Citharexylum spinosum

Managment information
Dhileepan, K. M. Trevi�o, and S. Raghu., 2006. Temporal Patterns in Incidence and Abundance of Aconophora compressa (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a Biological Control Agent for Lantana camara, on Target and Nontarget Plants Environmental Entomology pp. 1001�1012 Volume 35, Issue 4 (August 2006)
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER). 1999. Citharexylum spinosum. Forest Service. Department of Agriculture.
Summary: This site has brief descriptions and a great distribution section.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/pier/species/citharexylum_spinosum.htm [Accessed 3 December 2006]
Starr, F., Starr, K., & L. Loope. 2003. Citharexylum spinosum. Plants of Hawaii Reports.
Summary: This report is very comprehensive and gives important management information and species details.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/starr/hiplants/reports/html/citharexylum_spinosum.htm [Accessed 2 December 2006]
General information
Duquesnel, Jim. 2003. Why fiddlewoods don t fruit in Australia. Aliens-L.
Summary: This e mail provides information about C. spinosum nativity in the Florida keys. [Accessed 6 December 2006]
Indian River Research and Education Center (IRREC). 2003. Citharexylum spinosum. University of Florida
Summary: This website provides general characteristics about C. spinosum. Available from: http://irrecenvhort.ifas.ufl.edu/virtualgarden/infosheets/fiddlewood.htm [Accessed 4 December 2006]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System). 2006. Online Database Citharexylum spinosum.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=32155 [Accessed 20 October 2006]
Mcfadyen, Rachel. 2003. Why fiddlewood trees don t fruit in Australia. Aliens-L.
Summary: This email provides some species information and distribution information. [Accessed 6 December 2006]
Smith, C. 1985. Impact of Alien Plants on Hawai I s Native Biota. Botany Department and the National Park Service Cooperative Park Studies Unit of the University of Hawaii at Manoa
Summary: Provides information about habitat and general characteristics.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/impact.htm [Accessed 6 December 2006]
Smith, C. 1998. Citharexylum spinosum. Hawaiian Alien Plant Studies. University of Hawaii Botany Department.
Summary: Gives general characteristics and habitat information.
Available from: http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/cw_smith/cit_spi.htm [Accessed 4 December 2006]
Starr, Forest. 2003. Why fiddlewood trees don t fruit in Australia. Aliens-L.
Summary: This e mail provides some general characteristics and distribution information. [Accessed 6 December 2006]
The State of Queensland. 2006. Ancophora compressa. Department of Natural Resources and Water.
Summary: Provides information about biological control that was released in Australia that inadvertently began to attack fiddlewoods.
Available from: http://www.nrw.qld.gov.au/pests/research/aconophora.html [Accessed 3 December 2006]
USDA, ARS, 2005. National Genetic Resources Program. Citharexylum spinosum Germplasm Resources Information Network- (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
Summary: This governmental site has a wealth of distribution information.
Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Citharexylum%20spinosum [Accessed 5 December 2005]
USDA-NRCS. 2006. Citharexylum spinosum The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
Summary: This site provides information pertaining to Florida s C. spinosum county distribution.
Available from: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CISP3 [Accessed 2 December 2006]
Wunderlin, R. and B. Hansen. 2006. Citharexylum spinosum. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Institute of Systematic Botany.
Summary: This website gives about 20 synonms for C. spinosum.
Available from: http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/main.asp?plantID=2182 [Accessed 3 December 2006]
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Citharexylum spinosum