Global invasive species database

  • General
  • Distribution
  • Impact
  • Management
  • Bibliography
  • Contact
Common name
domaci golob (Slovenian), pigeon biset domestique (French), kaljutuvi (Estonian), rock dove (English), paloma de castilla (Spanish), rock dove pigeon (English), pigeon (English), colom roquer (Basque), haitz-uso (Basque), kawara-bato (Japanese), gradski Golub (Croatian), pigeon domestique (French), sizy Golub (Russian), homing pigeon (English), bládúva (Faroese), paloma doméstica (Spanish), pigeon de ville (French), sizyj golub' (Russian), golub pecinar (Croatian), pigeon biset (French), rock pigeon (English), domestic dove (English), calmane creggey (Manx), colu'r aille (Gaelic, Irish), domestic pigeon (English), colomp salvadi (Friulian), colom roquer (Galician), feral rock pigeon (English), pomba brava (Gaelic, Irish), feral pigeon (English), dobato (Japanese), pecinar (Croatian), common pigeon (English), kesykyyhky (Finnish), carrier pigeon (English), piccione domestico (Italian), szirti galamb (Hungarian), kalliokyyhky (Finnish), piccione torraiolo (Italian), piccione selvatico semidomestico (Italian), Tkhakapuyt Aghavni (Armenian), klippedue (Danish), piccione (Italian), piccione selvatico (Italian), piccione terraiolo (Italian), calman-creige (Scots), pombo-das-rochas (Portuguese), div gulab (Macedonian), colom wyls (Cornish), kawarabato (Japanese), kolomm an garrek (Cornish), naminis karvelis (Lithuanian), kieminis (Lithuanian), colomba salvaria (Ladino), balandis (Lithuanian), pombo o pombo-doméstico (Portuguese), klinšu balodis (Latvian), bydue (Norwegian), tudun tal-gebel (Maltese), pombo da rocha (Portuguese), pustynnik (Polish), tzidu (Sardinian), columba selvadia (Romansh), columba da chasa (Romansh), tidu (Sardinian), columbu de is arrocas (Sardinian), columbu aresti (Sardinian), bákteduvvá (Northern Sami), porumbel de stânca (Romanian), golab miejski (Polish), bareski-golumbaika (Romany), columbu agreste (Sardinian), baresko-golumbo (Romany), agreste (Sardinian), tidori (Sardinian), didu (Sardinian), paloma casera (Spanish), rotsduif (Dutch), colomen y graig (Welsh), pichon (Breton), ruve (Fijian, Fiji), dubet (Breton), golab skalny (Polish), klippduva (Swedish), skalen g'l'b (Bulgarian), ziwy golub (Sorbian, Lower), Xixella (Catalan), golub pecinar (Serbian), divlji golub (Serbian), tamduva (Swedish), sizij golub (Ukrainian), colomen ddôf (Welsh), güvercin (Turkish), holub domácí (Czech), holub skalní (Czech), šyzy holub (Belarusian), colm aille (Gaelic, Irish), yuan ge (Chinese), dziwi holb (Sorbian, Upper), Felsentaube (German), paloma bravia (Spanish), paloma (Spanish), Verwilderte Haustaube (German), kolombo (Esperanto), Haustaube, Strassentaube (German), bjargdúfa (Icelandic), bládúgva (Faroese), húsdúfa (Icelandic), paloma común (Spanish), pëllumbi i egër i shkëmbit (Albanian)
Synonym
Similar species
Summary
Columba livia is native to Europe and has been introduced worldwide as a food source, or for game. These pigeons prefer to live near human habitation, such as farmland and buildings. They cause considerable damage to buildings and monuments because of their corrosive droppings. They also pose a health hazard, since they are capable of transmitting a variety of diseases to humans and to domestic poultry and wildlife.
Species Description
Rock pigeons have a grey body with a whitish rump, two black bars on the secondary wing feathers, a broad blank band on the tail, and red feet. The body colour can vary from grey to white, tan, and black. Body mass is highly variable ranging from 243 to 359g (Johnston & Johnson 1989) and averaging 28cm in length (Williams & Corrigan 1994). When they take off, their wing tips touch, making a characteristic clicking sound. When they glide, their wings are raised at an angle (Williams & Corrigan 1994).
Lifecycle Stages
Eggs are laid 8 to12 days after mating, with a normal clutch size of 1 to 2 eggs, but up to 4. The eggs hatch after 16 to 21 days incubation and the young fledge at 4 to 6 weeks of age. More eggs are laid before the first clutch leaves the nest. Sexual maturity occurs after 6 months of age. In captivity, rock pigeons commonly live up to 15 years. In urban populations, however, rock pigeons seldom live more than 3 or 4 years (Johnston & Janiga 1995, Williams & Corrigan 1994).
Uses
Rock pigeons are kept and bred by pigeon fanciers for homing and racing competition (Robbins 1995) and in some locations such as Japan (Eguchi & Amano 2004) and the Galápagos Islands (Phillips et al. 2003) they are kept as a food source. In cities worldwide rock pigeons are a source of pleasure for many people who enjoy watching and feeding them.
Habitat Description
Rock pigeons prefer human habitations and are commonly found around farm yards, grain elevators, feed mills, parks, city buildings, bridges, and other structures (Williams & Corrigan 1994). In some settings, rock pigeons will roost and nest in natural areas and make daily foraging flights of several kilometres (Baldaccini et al. 2000, Earle & Little 1993, Phillips et al. 2003).
Reproduction
Rock pigeons are monogamous. The male provides nesting material and guards the female and the nest. The young are fed pigeon milk, a liquid solid substance secreted in the crop of the adult (both male and female) that is regurgitated. Breeding may occur at all seasons, but peak reproduction occurs in the spring and fall. A population of rock pigeons usually consists of equal numbers of males and females (Williams & Corrigan 1994).
Nutrition
Rock pigeons are primarily granivorous, but will consume insects and other food items (Johnston & Janiga 1995). In rural areas, rock pigeons forage primarily in fields for grains, such as corn, wheat, barley, and oats. In winter when the ground is snow-covered, spilled grain at storage sites (e.g., silos and grain elevators) is an important food source. When available, high protein food items, such as peas, are preferred by rock pigeons. They mostly rely on free-standing water but can also use snow to obtain water (Williams & Corrigan 1994).
Pathway
Europeans moving to new locations were a source of early introduced populations (Robbins 1995).Pigeons have been introduced as a food source (Eguchi & Amano 2004)

Principal source: Williams, D.E. and Corrigan, R.M. 1994 Pigeons (Rock Doves) in Hygnstorm, S.E., Timm, R.M. and Larson, G.E., Prevention and control of wildlife damage

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review: R. Brand Phillips, PhD Candidate Department of Biology University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, USA

Publication date: 2008-05-29

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Columba livia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1052 on 09-12-2016.

General Impacts
Rock pigeons are known to transmit pigeon ornithosis, encephalitis, Exotic Newcastle Disease, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, salmonella food poisoning, and several other diseases (Weber 1979, Long 1981). Rock pigeons and their nests are infested with ectoparasites, such as ticks, fleas, and mites, which can cause health problems for humans (Dautel et al. 1991, Haag & Spiewak 2004).

Rock pigeon droppings can accelerate the deterioration of buildings and increase cost of maintenance (Haag 1995). Large amounts of droppings may kill vegetation and produce an objectionable odour. Around grain handling facilities, pigeons consume and contaminate large quantities of food destined for human or livestock consumption (Little 1994). Furthermore, rock pigeons located around airports can be a threat to human safety because of potential bird-craft collisions (Seamans et al. 2007). In the U.S. alone, they cause $1.1 billion dollars of damage in urban areas annually (Pimentel et al. 1999). In the Galápagos, the rock pigeon is the carrier of Trichomonas gallinae, a potentially fatal disease for endemic Galápagos doves and poultry (Harmon et al.1987).

Management Info
Preventative measures: Several techniques are available to prevent rock pigeons from establishing in an area or to exclude them if they are already established (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Habitat modification includes physically altering roosting and nesting sites and removing food and water sources. The latter two aspects are critical for long-term control and require cooperation from the public. Exclusion methods, such as blocking access to roost sites or installing anti-perching devices are effective. Rock pigeons can also be prevented from perching or roosting by applying various chemical repellents to these areas.

Physical: Williams & Corrigan (1994) suggested that frightening, repellents, trapping, shooting, and nest removal may be useful and practical approaches to manage rock pigeons in conjunction with habitat modification measures.

Chemical: Toxicants, including both oral and contact poisons, may also be used to control rock pigeons. Oral poisons require prebaiting before the toxicant can be applied and can pose significant risks to non-target species (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Fumigants can also be used to control rock pigeons, however, they are generally not practical (Williams & Corrigan, 1994).
Please follow this link for more details about preventative measures, physical and chemical control methods Hygnstrom, et al. 1994.

Integrated management: Eradication campaigns have been carried out on Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz islands using a combination of methods: shooting, catching them by hand, using baits laced with alpha-chloralose to stupefy them (Phillips, R. B., unpublished data).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Columba livia
NATIVE RANGE
  • afghanistan
  • albania
  • algeria
  • andorra
  • australia
  • belarus
  • belgium
  • bosnia and herzegovina
  • bulgaria
  • burkina faso
  • cape verde
  • chad
  • china
  • congo, the democratic republic of the
  • cook islands
  • cote d'ivoire
  • croatia
  • cyprus
  • denmark
  • egypt
  • eritrea
  • estonia
  • ethiopia
  • ex-yugoslavia
  • faroe islands
  • finland
  • france
  • french polynesia
  • gabon
  • gambia
  • germany
  • ghana
  • greece
  • guam
  • guernsey
  • guinea
  • guinea-bissau
  • iceland
  • india
  • indonesia
  • ireland
  • isle of man
  • italy
  • kazakhstan
  • kenya
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • kyrgyzstan
  • lao people's democratic republic
  • latvia
  • lebanon
  • liberia
  • libyan arab jamahiriya
  • lithuania
  • macedonia, the former yugoslav republic of
  • mali
  • malta
  • mauritania
  • mauritius
  • moldova, republic of
  • monaco
  • mongolia
  • morocco
  • mozambique
  • myanmar
  • namibia
  • nepal
  • new caledonia
  • nigeria
  • norway
  • pakistan
  • poland
  • reunion
  • romania
  • russian federation
  • san marino
  • sao tome and principe
  • scandinavia
  • senegal
  • serbia and montenegro
  • seychelles
  • slovakia
  • slovenia
  • somalia
  • south africa
  • spain
  • sudan
  • sweden
  • syrian arab republic
  • tajikistan
  • togo
  • tunisia
  • turkey
  • turkmenistan
  • uganda
  • ukraine
  • united kingdom
  • uzbekistan
  • viet nam
  • western sahara
  • zambia
Informations on Columba livia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Columba livia in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Rock pigeons are known to transmit pigeon ornithosis, encephalitis, Exotic Newcastle Disease, cryptococcosis, toxoplasmosis, salmonella food poisoning, and several other diseases (Weber 1979, Long 1981). Rock pigeons and their nests are infested with ectoparasites, such as ticks, fleas, and mites, which can cause health problems for humans (Dautel et al. 1991, Haag & Spiewak 2004).

Rock pigeon droppings can accelerate the deterioration of buildings and increase cost of maintenance (Haag 1995). Large amounts of droppings may kill vegetation and produce an objectionable odour. Around grain handling facilities, pigeons consume and contaminate large quantities of food destined for human or livestock consumption (Little 1994). Furthermore, rock pigeons located around airports can be a threat to human safety because of potential bird-craft collisions (Seamans et al. 2007). In the U.S. alone, they cause $1.1 billion dollars of damage in urban areas annually (Pimentel et al. 1999). In the Galápagos, the rock pigeon is the carrier of Trichomonas gallinae, a potentially fatal disease for endemic Galápagos doves and poultry (Harmon et al.1987).

Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
BERMUDA
FIJI
Mechanism
[1] Competition
[1] Rooting/Digging
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Human nuisance 
  • [1] Damage to ornamentals
Management information
Preventative measures: Several techniques are available to prevent rock pigeons from establishing in an area or to exclude them if they are already established (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Habitat modification includes physically altering roosting and nesting sites and removing food and water sources. The latter two aspects are critical for long-term control and require cooperation from the public. Exclusion methods, such as blocking access to roost sites or installing anti-perching devices are effective. Rock pigeons can also be prevented from perching or roosting by applying various chemical repellents to these areas.

Physical: Williams & Corrigan (1994) suggested that frightening, repellents, trapping, shooting, and nest removal may be useful and practical approaches to manage rock pigeons in conjunction with habitat modification measures.

Chemical: Toxicants, including both oral and contact poisons, may also be used to control rock pigeons. Oral poisons require prebaiting before the toxicant can be applied and can pose significant risks to non-target species (Williams & Corrigan, 1994). Fumigants can also be used to control rock pigeons, however, they are generally not practical (Williams & Corrigan, 1994).
Please follow this link for more details about preventative measures, physical and chemical control methods Hygnstrom, et al. 1994.

Integrated management: Eradication campaigns have been carried out on Isabela, San Cristóbal and Santa Cruz islands using a combination of methods: shooting, catching them by hand, using baits laced with alpha-chloralose to stupefy them (Phillips, R. B., unpublished data).

Bibliography
18 references found for Columba livia

Managment information
Galapagos National Park and the Charles Darwin Foundation (GNP and CDF), 2004. Galapagos�Invasive�Species: Harmful animals.
Summary: It provides information about the management methods in eradication of pigeons in three island in galapagos.
Available from: http://www.hear.org/galapagos/invasives/topics/management/vertebrates/projects/doves.htm [Accessed 17 November 2006].
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Williams, D.E. and Corrigan, R.M. 1994. Pigeons (Rock Doves) in Hygnstorm, S.E., Timm, R.M. and Larson, G.E., Prevention and control of wildlife damage :E87-E96.
Summary: This article provides detailed information about general charateristics of Columba livia and the management method for control and prevention.
Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdmhandbook/69/ [Accessed 17 November 2006].
General information
Avibase ( The World Bird Database), Online database Columbia livia
Summary: Avibase is an extensive database information system about all birds of the world, containing over 2 million records about 10,000 species and 22,000 subspecies of birds, including distribution information, taxonomy, synonyms in several languages and more.
Avibase is available from: http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?pg=home&lang=EN
This page is available from: http://www.bsc-eoc.org/avibase/avibase.jsp?pg=summary&lang=EN&id=04127535BD0788BC&ts=1164602181109 [Accessed 17 November 2006].
Buden, D.W. 2000. A comparison of 1983 and 1994 bird surveys of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. In Wilson Bull 112(3): 403-410.
Summary: This article provieds a comparison of bird surveys done separately on Pohnper island in 1983 and 1994.
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Aves. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - birds is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Aves [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Aves is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Aves [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Eguchi, K. and Amano, H.E. 2004. Spread of exotic birds in Japan. In Ornithological Science 3:3-11.
Summary: This article provides information about the exotic birds introduced to Japan, the effects and impact caused by the introduction and the general legal control of the birds introduction.
Available from: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/osj/3/1/3/_pdf [Accessed 21 November 2006].
Forys, E.A. and Allen, C.R. 1999. Biological invasions and deletions: community change in south Florida. In Biological Conservation 87:341-347
Summary: This study used endangered and exotic fauna of South Florida to test three hypothesis about community change, which are body-mass difference hypothesis, diet difference hypothesis and niche replacement hypothesis.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Columba livia
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=177071 [Accessed 5 February 2008]
Post Fiji Web Site: Pigeons of Fiji Stamp Issue: www. stamps fiji.htm.
Robbins, C. S. 1995. Non-native birds. Pages 437-440 in LaRoe, E. T., Farris, G. S., Puckett, C. E., Doran, P. D., and Mac, M. J. ed. Our Living Resources. National Biological Service, Washington, D.C. xi, 530 pp.
Summary: This article presents the history and status of some non-native birds introduced to North America.
Ryan, P. 1999. Fiji�s Natural Heritage. Exile Publishing.
Schorger, A.W. 1952. Introduction of the domestic pigeon. Auk 69:462-463
Summary: It is an article to focus on the process of introduction of pigeon into United States.
Available from:http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v069n04/p0462-p0463.pdf [Accessed 21November 2006].
Trainor, C. R. 2002. The birds of Adonara, Lesser Sundas, Indonesia, Forktail 18: 93-100
Summary: This is a brief survey of avifauna on Adonara island.
Available from:http://orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/18pdfs/Trainor-Adonara.pdf [Accessed 21 November 2006].
Watling, D. 1999. Pocket poster guide to the Birds of Fiji. Landbirds.
Watling, D. and Pernetta, J.C. 1978. The Introduced and Native Terrestrial Vertebrates of Fiji. Pacific Science: Vol. 32, no. 3.
Contact
The following 0 contacts offer information an advice on Columba livia