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Common name
Asian mussel (English, USA), green mussel (English, USA), cuckoo mussel (English), senhouse mussel (English), hototogisu (English), Senhouse's mussel (English), Asian date mussel (English), Japanese mussel (English, USA), green bagmussel (English, USA), date mussel (English)
Synonym
Brachidontes (Arcuatula) senhousia , Kira, 1959
Brachidontes (Musculista) senhousia , Kira, 1962
Brachidontes aquarius , Grabau and King, 1928
Modiola bellardiana , Tapparone-Canefri, 1874
Modiola senhausii , Reeve, 1857
Modiola senhousia , Benson in Cantor, 1842
Modiolus senhousei , Hanna, 1966
Musculista senhausia , Morton, 1974
Musculus (Musculista ) senhousia , Yammamoto & Habe, 1958
Volsella senhausi , Smith, 1944
Modiola arcuatula , Hanley, 1844
Similar species
Xenostrobus securis, Modiola arcuatula
Summary
Musculista senhousia is a small, short-lived mytilid mussel native to east Asia which has successfully spread to New Zealand, Australia, the Mediterranean and the Pacific coast of the USA. It can grow rapidly and is capable of marked habitat alteration through the construction of byssal mats on the surface of soft sediments.
Species Description
Musculista senhousia is a small mussel with a maximum length of around 30mm, but most commonly 10-25mm in length and up to 12mm in width. It has a smooth, thin shell which is an olive green to brown in colour, with dark radial lines or zigzag markings. A well developed byssus is used to construct a cocoon which protects the shell. This cocoon is made up of byssal threads and sediment. M. senhousia burrows vertically down into the sand/mud leaving only its posterior end protruding, allowing its siphons access to the water to enable feeding (NIMPIS, 2002; CIESM, 2005).
Notes
Predation by native species contributes significantly to community resistance to invasion by Musculista senhousia in southern California, and may locally prevent the mussel from establishing dense, habitat-modifying beds with potential effects on native species. (Reusch, 1998).
Lifecycle Stages
Musculista senhousia eggs and larvae are planktonic, and remain in the plankton for 45-55 days. It can reach adult size within 9 months, and up to 25mm within a year. Life span is thought to be between 18 and 24 months (Crook, 1996; CSIRO, 2000; NIMPIS, 2002; CIESM, 2005).
Habitat Description
Musculista senhousia is an opportunistic species which can be found from intertidal to subtidal habitats (to a depth of 20m) and on soft or hard substrata. It prefers to settle in groups on soft substrata, but is capable of fouling wharf pilings and man made structures. When settled on hard substrata the mussel will not form a protective cocoon. When densities are high, individual byssal cocoons fuse to form continuous byssal carpets. Densities of \"up to 2,500 mussels per square metre in Hong Kong, 2,600 per square metre in Western Australia, 2,800 per square metre in Japan, 3,300 per square metre in New Zealand, 8,600 per square metre in Mission Bay, 12,400 per square metre in San Diego Bay and 16,000 per square metre at Auckland, New Zealand have been reported. Crooks (2002) reported that densities of 5,000-10,000 per square metre are typical in mats in Mission Bay, with peak densities of over 150,000 mussels per square metre. Juveniles have been reported to settle on eelgrass at densities of 28,650 per square metre and on synthetic line at 126,000 per square metre; they later drop off these substrates to settle in mats on the bottom\" (Cohen, 2005). M. senhousia is a highly adaptive species, and is able to tolerate low salinities (CSIRO, 2000; NIMPIS, 2002).
Reproduction
Musculista senhousia is a species with high fecundity, rapid growth, a short life span and good dispersal ability, making it a successful invader. In the northern hemisphere it reproduces in the summer, larvae being most abundant through autumn and early winter. It has separate sexes, with males and females spawning at the same time. Spawning time varies within a limited spawning season (NIMPIS, 2002; CIESM, 2005).
Nutrition
Musculista senhousia, like most mussels, is a suspension feeder. It lives endobenthically just below the sediment surface, where it filters phytoplankton from the water column with a short (<5mm) siphon (Morton, 1974; in Reusch and Williams, 1998; NIMPIS, 2002; Allen and Williams, 2003).
Pathway
Musculista senhousia may have been introduced to Australia as an accidental importation with Pacific oysters (CSIRO, 2000). In the Mediterranean, invasion of M. senhousia has been strictly linked with shellfish farming and trading.The initial invasion of the Pacific coast of the USA is attributed to transport with oysters imported from Japan (Mistri et al. 2004).

Principal source: NIMPIS. 2002. Musculista senhousia species summary. National Introduced Marine Pest Information System (Eds: Hewitt, C.L., Martin, R.B., Sliwa, C., McEnnulty, F.R., Murphy, N.E., Jones, T. and Cooper, S.).

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastrcuture (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)

Review:

Publication date: 2006-11-16

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2018) Species profile: Musculista senhousia. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1031 on 16-12-2018.

General Impacts
Musculista senhousia can dominate benthic communities and potentially exclude native species. It settles in aggregations and is therefore able to reach high densities. Unlike most mussels, M. senhousia lives entirely within the sediments, surrounded by a bag of byssal threads. At mussel densities of greater than 1500 m2, individual byssal bags coalesce to form a continuous mat or carpet on the sediment surface. The presence of these mats dramatically alters the natural benthic habitat, changing both the local physical environment and the resident macroinvertebrate assemblage. Although this can result in increased species richness and abundance of some species, mussel mats reduce the densities of many common native bivalves and the growth of nearby eelgrass (NIMPIS, 2002; Allen and Williams, 2003). Crooks (1999) found that the effects of M. senhousia appear to be scale dependent. At larger scales, surface-dwelling, suspension-feeding clams are competitively inhibited. At smaller scales, however, the mussel benefits a variety of biota.
M. senhousia deposits large amounts of organic matter in the sediment, which possibly results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as sulfide, which can have adverse effects on seagrass growth (Morton, 1974; Ito and Kajihara, 1981; in Reusch and Williams, 1998).
Management Info
A two year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters and those not found within Australian waters.
All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies Musculista senhousia as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.

McEnnulty et al. (2001) list four possible control options for M. senhousia: air exposure/dessication/freezing, commerical harvesting for food and fertiliser, dredging/beamtrawling/mopping, heated water treatment (baths, spray). Please see The Web-based Rapid Response Toolbox for more detailed information.

Predation by native species contributes significantly to community resistance to invasion by M. senhousia in southern California, and may locally prevent the mussel from establishing dense, habitat-modifying beds with potential effects on native species. (Reusch, 1998).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Musculista senhousia
NATIVE RANGE
  • japan
  • korea, democratic people's republic of
  • korea, republic of
  • russian federation
  • singapore
Informations on Musculista senhousia has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
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Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Musculista senhousia in information
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Invasiveness
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Occurrence
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Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Musculista senhousia can dominate benthic communities and potentially exclude native species. It settles in aggregations and is therefore able to reach high densities. Unlike most mussels, M. senhousia lives entirely within the sediments, surrounded by a bag of byssal threads. At mussel densities of greater than 1500 m2, individual byssal bags coalesce to form a continuous mat or carpet on the sediment surface. The presence of these mats dramatically alters the natural benthic habitat, changing both the local physical environment and the resident macroinvertebrate assemblage. Although this can result in increased species richness and abundance of some species, mussel mats reduce the densities of many common native bivalves and the growth of nearby eelgrass (NIMPIS, 2002; Allen and Williams, 2003). Crooks (1999) found that the effects of M. senhousia appear to be scale dependent. At larger scales, surface-dwelling, suspension-feeding clams are competitively inhibited. At smaller scales, however, the mussel benefits a variety of biota.
M. senhousia deposits large amounts of organic matter in the sediment, which possibly results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites such as sulfide, which can have adverse effects on seagrass growth (Morton, 1974; Ito and Kajihara, 1981; in Reusch and Williams, 1998).
Red List assessed species 0:
Outcomes
[8] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [1] Modification of natural benthic communities
  • [7] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [2] Damage on aquaculture/mariculture/fishery
Management information
A two year study was undertaken for the Department of Environment and Heritage (Australia) by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) to identify and rank introduced marine species found within Australian waters and those not found within Australian waters.
All of the non-native potential target species identified in this report are ranked as high, medium and low priority, based on their invasion potential and impact potential. A hazard ranking of potential domestic target species based on invasion potential from infected to uninfected bioregions identifies Musculista senhousia as a 'medium priority species' - these species have a reasonably high impact/or invasion potential.
For more details, please see Hayes et al. 2005.
The rankings determined in Hayes et al. 2005 will be used by the National Introduced Marine Pest Coordinating Group in Australia to assist in the development of national control plans which could include options for control, eradication and/or long term management.

McEnnulty et al. (2001) list four possible control options for M. senhousia: air exposure/dessication/freezing, commerical harvesting for food and fertiliser, dredging/beamtrawling/mopping, heated water treatment (baths, spray). Please see The Web-based Rapid Response Toolbox for more detailed information.

Predation by native species contributes significantly to community resistance to invasion by M. senhousia in southern California, and may locally prevent the mussel from establishing dense, habitat-modifying beds with potential effects on native species. (Reusch, 1998).

Bibliography
28 references found for Musculista senhousia

Managment information
Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)., 2008. Decision support tools-Identifying potentially invasive non-native marine and freshwater species: fish, invertebrates, amphibians.
Summary: The electronic tool kits made available on the Cefas page for free download are Crown Copyright (2007-2008). As such, these are freeware and may be freely distributed provided this notice is retained. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made and users should satisfy themselves as to the applicability of the results in any given circumstance. Toolkits available include 1) FISK- Freshwater Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit (English and Spanish language version); 2) MFISK- Marine Fish Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 3) MI-ISK- Marine invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit; 4) FI-ISK- Freshwater Invertebrate Invasiveness Scoring Kit and AmphISK- Amphibian Invasiveness Scoring Kit. These tool kits were developed by Cefas, with new VisualBasic and computational programming by Lorenzo Vilizzi, David Cooper, Andy South and Gordon H. Copp, based on VisualBasic code in the original Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) tool kit of P.C. Pheloung, P.A. Williams & S.R. Halloy (1999).
The decision support tools are available from: http://cefas.defra.gov.uk/our-science/ecosystems-and-biodiversity/non-native-species/decision-support-tools.aspx [Accessed 13 October 2011]
The guidance document is available from http://www.cefas.co.uk/media/118009/fisk_guide_v2.pdf [Accessed 13 January 2009].
Cohen, A.N. 2005. Musculista senhousia. Guide to the exotic species of San Francisco Bay. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA.
Summary: This website provides detailed information on M. senhousia in San Francisco Bay.
Available from: http://www.exoticsguide.org/species_pages/m_senhousia.html [Accessed 12 November 2006]
Kushner, R.B. 2003. Eelgrass habitat structure and the density-dependent mortality of an invasive bivalve. In Abstracts: Third International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, March 16-19, 2003. Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla, California
Summary: Report on predation of invasive mussel by another species and also the preferred habitat of the invasive mussel.
Available from: http://massbay.mit.edu/resources/pdf/MarinePDF/2003/MBI2003abs7.pdf [Accessed 5 November 2006]
Reusch, T.B.H. 1998. Native predators contribute to invasion resistance to the non-indigenous bivalve Musculista senhousia in southern California, USA. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 170: 159-168.
Summary: This paper discusses the impact of native predators in preventing establishment of M. senhousia in southern California.
Available from: http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=4445902&q=Musculista+senhousia&uid=1044058&setcookie=yes [Accessed 12 November 2006]
General information
Allen, B.J. and Williams, S.L. 2003. Native eelgrass Zostera marina controls growth and reproduction of an invasive mussel through food limitation. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 254: 57-67.
Summary: This paper examines the complex relationship between M. senhousia and the native eelgrass (Zostera marina) in California.
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), 2000. Asian mussel (Musculista senhousia). Marine Pest Infosheet 7. Centre for Research on Introduced Marine Pests, CSIRO Marine Research.
Summary: This fact sheet provides basic information about the invasive mussel Musculista senhousia.
Available from: http://www.marine.csiro.au/crimp/Reports/Infosht7_Musc0700S3.pdf [Accessed 6 November 2006]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Moluscos. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - Molluscs is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Moluscos[Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Moluscos is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Moluscos [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Crooks, J. 1999. Scale-dependent effects of an introduced, habitat-modifying mussel in an urbanized wetland. In Abstracts: First National Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, January 24 -27, 1999. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA
Summary: Report into how abundance of mussel affect how they effect the ecosystem.
Available from: http://massbay.mit.edu/resources/pdf/MarinePDF/1999/MarineAbs3.pdf [Accessed 5 November 2006]
Crooks, J.A. 1996. The population ecology of an exotic mussel, Musculista senhousia, in a Southern California Bay. Estuaries. 19 (1): 42-50.
Summary: This paper examines the population ecology of M. senhousia in southern California.
Crooks, J.A. 1998. Habitat alteration and community-level effects of an exotic mussel, Musculista senhousia. MEPS. 162: 137-152.
Summary: This paper examines the effects of habitat alteration by the exotic mussel M. senhousia.
Crooks, J.A. 2001. Assessing invader roles within changing ecosystems: historical and experimental perspectives on an exotic mussel in an urbanised lagoon. Biological Invasions. 3: 23-36.
Summary: This paper discusses the role of M. senhousia in altering species compositions at Misson Bay, California, USA.
Crooks, J.A. 2002. Predators of the invasive mussel Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Mytilidae). Pacific Science. 56 (1): 49-56.
Summary: This paper looks at the impacts of predation on M. senhousia populations.
Crooks, J.A. and Khim, H.S. 1999. Architectural vs. biological effects of a habitat-altering, exotic mussel, Musculista senhousia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 240: 53-75.
Summary: This paper outlines the effects of habitat alteration by M. senhousia on biological diversity at Mission Bay, California, USA.
Hewitt, C.L, Campbell, M.L., Thresher, R.E., Martin, R.B., Boyd, S., Cohen, B.F., Currie, D.R., Gomon, M.F., Keough, M.J., Lewis, J.A., Lockett, M.M., Mays, N., McArthur, M.A., O Hara, T.D., Poore, G.C.B., Ross, D.J., Storey, M.J., Watson, J.E. and Wilson, R.S. 2004. Introduced and cryptogenic species in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia. Marine Biology. 144 (1): 183-202.
Summary: This paper outlines the introduced marine species which are present in Port Phillip Bay, Victoria, Australia.
International Commission for the Scientific Exploration of the Mediterranean Sea (CIESM)., 2005. Musculista senhousia. Fact sheet.
Summary: This fact sheet provides basic information about M. senhousia.
Available from: http://www.ciesm.org/atlas/Musculistasenhousia.html [Accessed 20 October 2006]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2005. Online Database Musculista senhousia
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=79577 [Accessed 20 October 2006]
Mastrototaro, F., Matarrese, A. and D Onghia, G. 2003. Occurrence of Musculista senhousia (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in the Taranto seas (eastern-central Mediterranean Sea). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 83: 1279-1280.
Summary: This paper reports on the presence of M. senhousia in the Taranto Seas in the northwestern Ionian Sea, Italy.
McEnnulty, F.R., Jones, T.E. and Bax, N.J. 2001. The Web-Based Rapid Response Toolbox. NIMPIS.
Summary: This toolbox presents a range of management options for invasive marine species.
Available from: http://crimp.marine.csiro.au/NIMPIS/controls.htm [Accessed 8 November 2006]
Mistri, M. 2003. The non-indigenous mussel Musculista senhousia in an Adriatic lagoon: effects on benthic community over a ten year period. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 83: 1277-1278.
Summary: This paper describes the impacts, positive and negative, that M. senhousia has had on the benthic community of the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Italy) since its introduction.
Mistri, M. 2004. Effect of Musculista senhousia mats on clam mortality and growth: much ado about nothing? Aquaculture. 241: 207-218.
Summary: This paper examines the impact of M. senhousia on commercial clam species in Italy, but found no effect.
Mistri, M., Rossi, R. and Fano, E.A. 2004. The spread of an alien bivalve (Musculista senhousia) in the Sacca di Goro lagoon (Adriatic Sea, Italy). J. Moll. Stud.. 70: 257-261.
Summary: This paper discusses the spread of M. senhousia in the Sacca di Goro lagoon in Italy.
OBIS. 2006. Musculista senhousia (Benson, 1842). Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS) Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database.
Summary: This website provides basic information on M. senhousia.
Available from: http://data.acnatsci.org/obis/search.php/19485 [Accessed 12 November 2006]
Reusch, T.B.H. and Williams, S.L. 1998. Variable responses of native eelgrass Zostera marina to a non-indigenous bivalve Musculista senhousia. Oecologia. 113: 428-441.
Summary: This paper describes the interactions between M. senhousia and native eelgrass (Zostera marina) in southern California.
United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2006. Musculista senhousia. USGS Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL.
Summary: This fact sheet provides basic information and a distribution map of M. senhousia s presence in the USA.
Available from: http://nas.er.usgs.gov/queries/FactSheet.asp?speciesID=105 [Accessed 8 November 2006]
Wasson, K., Zabin, C.J., Bedinger, L., Diaz, M.C. and Pearse, J.S. 2001. Biological invasions of estuaries without international shipping: the importance of intraregional transport. Biological Conservation. 102: 143-153.
Summary: This paper discusses the exotic marine species present at Elkhorn Slough, California, USA.
Contact
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