Global invasive species database

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Common name
gallina de palo (Spanish), iguane vert (French), iguane commun (French), common iguana (English), green iguana (English), iguana verde (Spanish), gr�n leguan (Swedish)
Synonym
Lacerta Igvana , Linnaeus 1758: 206
Iguana minima , Laurenti 1768
Iguana tuberculata , Laurenti 1768
Iguana coerulea , Daudin 1802
Iguana vulgaris , Link 1806
Iguana sapidissima , Merrem 1820
Iguana sapidissima , Wied 1824
Iguana squamosa , Spix 1825
Iguana viridis , Spix 1825
Iguana coerulea , Spix (non Daudin) 1825
Iguana emarginata , Spix 1825
Iguana lophryoides , Spix 1825
Prionodus iguana , Wagler 1828
Hypsilophus tuberculatus , Wagler 1830
Iguana tuberculata , Dumeril & Bibron 1837: 203
Hypsilophus tuberculatus , Fitzinger 1843
Iguana Hernandessi , JAN 1857 (nomen nudum fide Smith & Taylor 1950)
Iguana tuberculata , Boulenger 1885: 189
Iguana tuberculata , Gunther 1885: 56
Iguana tuberculata , Cope 1886: 270
Iguana iguana , Conant & Collins 1991: 95
Iguana iguana , Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 419
Iguana iguana , Liner 1994
Similar species
Summary
The green iguana (Iguana iguana) is native to tropical parts of Latin America and grows to around 1.5m in length and 4 to 5kgs in weight. It is associated with warm coastal regions, low elevations and waterways, especially where trees extend over water. It inhabits mangrove forests and saltwater habitats, but requires access to freshwater. Popular as pets throughout America and Europe, green iguana owners often do not realise the lizard's space requirements and release them into urban areas when they grow too big. I. iguana is reported as an exotic pest in Puerto Rico. It also occurs in high concentrations in urban areas of southern Florida. It consumes and defecates the fruits of invasive plants, thereby acting as a potential dispersal agent. It has been cited as the source of a number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis.
Species Description
Green iguana grow to around 1.5m in length and 4 to 5kgs in weight (Engeman et al. 2005).
Notes
In Florida the green iguana is known to be eaten by the domestic dog Canis familiaris (Meshaka et al. 2004); the yellow-crowned night-heron (Nyctanassa violacea) (Engeman et al 2005); the Florida burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia floridana a species of 'Special Concern') (McKie et al. 2005) and the introduced raccoon (Procyon lotor) which eats juveniles, attacks adults and preys on nests (Smith et al. 2006).
Lifecycle Stages
On Key Biscayne, (Florida, USA) green iguana nest in sandy areas, often with multiple females utilising a single small area. Most hatchlings appear during July and August (Townsend et al. 2003).
Uses
Green iguanas make popular pets throughout America and Europe. They are known for their docile, attractive and interesting traits (Meshaka et al. 2004).
Throughout Central America, iguanid lizards (I. iguana and Ctenosaura similis) are captured by professional lizard hunters and sold at local markets (Fitch et al. 1982, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995). There is even a significant trade of lizards across borders from the Honduras and Guatemala to El Salvador. Iguanas and their eggs are used both as food and for medicinal purposes, depending on the region. In some cultures iguana eggs are believed to be aphrodisiacs (Werner 1991, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995). The green iguana has been managed on a sustained-yield basis in Panama (one of the few instances of a successful sustainable project for reptiles). The iguana's forested habitat is being protected and it provides a dependable, sustainable source of protein for rural inhabitants (Werner 1991, in Klemens and Thorbjarnarson 1995).
Habitat Description
Iguana iguana are known to show a preference for disturbed sites near standing water. In Florida they are associated with warm coastal regions free of frost. They are often found associated with waterways, such as bays, canals, ponds and ditches, and especially areas where trees extend over water. They also inhabit mangrove forests and saltwater habitats (Meshaka et al. 2004).
Reproduction
Attaining maturity may take three to four years but female green iguana can produce large clutches for many years (Meshaka et al. 2004).
Nutrition
In their native range green iguana are known to be herbivorous through their lifespan, however, juvenlies have been reported to maybe, be omnivorous (Savage 2002). Analysis of stomach contents of 18 green iguana by Townsend et al. (2005) as part of an ongoing study on the exotic herpetofauna and its management in Florida, discovered the remains of an arboreal snail Drymaeus multilineatus in two specimens, one with accompanying plant material (suggesting that they could have been ingested accidentally with plant material on which the snails were aestivating) and the other without (suggesting that they could have ingested the snails intentionally).
Pathway
Tens of thousands of baby green iguanas are introduced into the state of Florida from Latin America for the pet trade every year (Meshaka et al. 2004). In 1995 over 1.14 million Iguana iguana were imported into the United States, representi

Principal source:

Compiler: IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review:

Publication date: 2010-06-15

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2017) Species profile: Iguana iguana. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1022 on 21-09-2017.

General Impacts
Competition and hybridization between Iguana iguana and the Lesser Antilles iguana, the 'Vulnerable 'VU' (Iguana delicatissima), are mentioned as the main causes of the virtual disappearance of the Lesser Antilles iguana from Iles des Saintes, Guadeloupe, in the second half of the 20th century (Breuil and Sastre, 1993). On Martinique, the green iguana which is larger and more opportunistic in its food choices than the endemic I. delicatissima may be a strong competitor for the latter (Breuil, 2002). Green iguana may compete for resources with the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' endemic Cayman island ground iguana (see Cyclura lewisi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) on Grand Cayman, if their ranges overlap in the future (Burton, 2003).

While there are reports of juvenile green iguana being predated on by the Florida burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia floridana a species of 'Special Concern'); there are concerns that adult green iguana may venture into burrows of the owl and forage on eggs and hatchlings (McKie et al. 2005). In their native range green iguana are known to be herbivorous through their lifespan, however, juveniles have been reported to maybe, be omnivorous (Savage 2002). Analysis of stomach contents of 18 green iguanas by Townsend et al. (2005) as part of an ongoing study on the exotic herpetofauna and its management in Florida, discovered the remains of an arboreal snail Drymaeus multilineatus in two specimens, one with accompanying plant material (suggesting that they could have been ingested accidentally with plant material on which the snails were aestivating) and the other without (suggesting that they could have ingested the snails intentionally). The authors of this study point out that while D. multilineatus is widespread and in no immediate danger, increased numbers of green iguana could potentially impact on tree snails with restricted distributions, whose native range overlap with that of the green iguana.
Green iguana are reported to be posing a collision hazard on airport runways in Puerto Rico (Engeman et al. 2005).
The keeping of reptiles as pets has been cited as the source of a number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas (Woodward et al. 1997).

Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Iguana iguana
Informations on Iguana iguana has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Iguana iguana in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
Competition and hybridization between Iguana iguana and the Lesser Antilles iguana, the 'Vulnerable 'VU' (Iguana delicatissima), are mentioned as the main causes of the virtual disappearance of the Lesser Antilles iguana from Iles des Saintes, Guadeloupe, in the second half of the 20th century (Breuil and Sastre, 1993). On Martinique, the green iguana which is larger and more opportunistic in its food choices than the endemic I. delicatissima may be a strong competitor for the latter (Breuil, 2002). Green iguana may compete for resources with the 'Critically Endangered (CR)' endemic Cayman island ground iguana (see Cyclura lewisi in IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) on Grand Cayman, if their ranges overlap in the future (Burton, 2003).

While there are reports of juvenile green iguana being predated on by the Florida burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia floridana a species of 'Special Concern'); there are concerns that adult green iguana may venture into burrows of the owl and forage on eggs and hatchlings (McKie et al. 2005). In their native range green iguana are known to be herbivorous through their lifespan, however, juveniles have been reported to maybe, be omnivorous (Savage 2002). Analysis of stomach contents of 18 green iguanas by Townsend et al. (2005) as part of an ongoing study on the exotic herpetofauna and its management in Florida, discovered the remains of an arboreal snail Drymaeus multilineatus in two specimens, one with accompanying plant material (suggesting that they could have been ingested accidentally with plant material on which the snails were aestivating) and the other without (suggesting that they could have ingested the snails intentionally). The authors of this study point out that while D. multilineatus is widespread and in no immediate danger, increased numbers of green iguana could potentially impact on tree snails with restricted distributions, whose native range overlap with that of the green iguana.
Green iguana are reported to be posing a collision hazard on airport runways in Puerto Rico (Engeman et al. 2005).
The keeping of reptiles as pets has been cited as the source of a number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas (Woodward et al. 1997).

Red List assessed species 3: CR = 1; EN = 2;
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Locations
CAYMAN ISLANDS
FIJI
GUADELOUPE
MARTINIQUE
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
PUERTO RICO
SAINT LUCIA
SAINT MARTIN (FRENCH PART)
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[11] Competition
[1] Predation
[9] Hybridisation
Outcomes
[7] Environmental Ecosystem - Habitat
  • [7] Reduction in native biodiversity
[2] Environmental Species - Population
  • [2] Alteration of genetic resources
[2] Socio-Economic
  • [1] Human nuisance 
  • [1] Other livelihoods
Management information
Locations
Management Category
Prevention
Eradication
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
28 references found for Iguana iguana

Managment information
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kern, W. H. Jr, 2009. Dealing with Iguanas in the South Florida Landscape. University of Florida IFAS Extension ENY-714
Summary: Available from: http://if-srvv-edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/IN/IN52800.pdf [Accessed 22 June 2010]
Malone, C.L. & Davis, S.K. 2004. Genetic contributions to Caribbean iguana conservation. In (eds A.C. Alberts, R.L. Carter, W.K. Hayes, & E.P. Martins) Iguanas: Biology and Conservation, p 45-57. University of California Press, US.
Morton, M. N. 2009. Management of Critical Species on Saint Lucia: Species Profiles and Management Recommendations. Technical Report No. 13 to the National Forest Demarcation and Bio-Physical Resource Inventory Project, FCG International Ltd, Helsinki, Finland
NatureFiji-MareqetiViti, 2010. American iguanas in Fiji
Summary: Available from: http://www.naturefiji.org/newsstory.php?id=93 [Accessed 14 June 2010]
Smith, H.T., W.E. Meshaka, R.M. Engeman, S.M. Crossett, M.E. Foley, and G. Busch. 2006. Raccoon predation as a limiting factor in the success of the Green Iguana in Southern Florida. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 20:7-8.
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
General information
Breuil, M. 2002. Histoire naturelle des Amphibiens et des Reptiles terrestres de l archipel Guadeloup�en. In Patrimoines Naturels, MNHN, Paris.
Summary: Ce livre propose une synth�se sur les amphibiens et reptiles terrestres de l archipel Guadeloup�en. Six esp�ces d Anoures, 5 de Tortues, 21 de L�zards dont 4 �teintes et 7 de Serpents sont d�taill�es.
Breuil, M. 2003. In the footsteps of French naturalists, a battle of iguanas and improvements in biodiversity. Island and the sea. Essays on herpetelogical exploartion in the West Indies. R. W.Henderson and R. Powell: 255-269.
Breuil, M. and C. Sastre 1993. Essai d inventaire �cologique de l Archipel des Saintes (Guadeloupe), Vert�br�s sauf oiseaux. Rapport Parc National de la Guadeloupe: 1-20.
Daltry, J.C. 2009. The Status and Management of Saint Lucia�s Forest Reptiles and Amphibians. Technical Report No. 2 to the National Forest Demarcation and Bio-Physical Resource Inventory Project, FCG International Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
Engeman, R. M., E. M. Sweet and H. T. Smith, 2005. Iguana iguana (Green Iguana). Predation. Herpetological Review. 36(3) (2005),
Summary: Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1023&context=icwdm_usdanwrc [Accessed 22 June 2010]
Engeman, R.M., Smith, H.T., and Constantin, B. 2005. Invasive Iguanas as Airstrike Hazards at Luis Munoz Marin International Airport, San Juan, Puerto Rico, JAAER
Summary: A report on the hazard possed by green iguanas at an airport in Puerto Rico.
Graveson, R. 2009. The Classification of the Vegetation of Saint Lucia. Technical Report No. 3 to the National Forest Demarcation and Bio-Physical Resource Inventory Project, FCG International Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2008. Online Database Iguana iguana (Linnaeus, 1758)
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=173930 [Accessed 14 January 2008]
Klemens, M.W and Thorbjarnarson, J.B. 1995. Reptiles as a food resource, Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 281-298.
Summary: A review of the use of various reptile species in world food markets.
Lorvelec, O., Pascal., M., Pavis, C., Feldmann, P. 2007. Amphibians and reptiles of the French West Indies : Inventory, threats and conservation. Applied Herpetology 4, 131-161
Summary: Cet article fait le point des connaissances sur les amphibiens et les reptiles indig�nes et introduits des Antilles fran�aises. Les impacts des esp�ces introduites sur la faune indig�ne sont discut�s. Le cas de la conservation des populations d Iguana delicatissima sur l�le de Petite-Terre est pr�sent�
McKie, A.C., Hammond J.E., Smith, H.T. and Meshaka, W.E. 2005. Invasive Green Iguana Interactions in a Burrowing Owl Colony in Florida, Florida Field Naturalist 33(4): 125-127.
Summary: Report on the preying of burrowing owls on green iguanas.
Available from: http://www.fosbirds.org/FFN/PDFs/FFNv33n4p125-127McKie.pdf [Accessed June 22 2010]
Meshaka, W.E., Bartlett, R.D. and Smith, H.T. 2004. Colonisation success by Green Iguana in Florida, Iguana 11(3)
Summary: An overview of the colonisation of Florida by green iguanas.
Reptiles Database, 2010. Iguana iguana Linnaeus, 1758
Summary: Available from: http://reptile-database.reptarium.cz/species.php?genus=Iguana&species=iguana [Accessed September 8 2010]
Reptile trade in the EU. 2003. Traffic bulletin 19 (3)
Summary: Overview of reptile pet trade in the European Union.
Townsend, J.H., Krysko, K.L. and Enge, K.M. 2003. Introduced Iguanas in Southern Florida: A History of More Than 35 Years, Iguana 10(4): 111-120.
Summary: An overview of the colonisation of Florida by various iguana species.
Available from: http://www.herpbreeder.com/pdf/pdfs/2003%20Townsend%20et%20al-Iguana.pdf.pdf [Accessed 10 November 2006]
Townsend, Josiah H.; John Slapcinsky; Kenneth L. Krysko; Ellen M. Donlan; Elizabeth A. Golden 2005. Predation of a Tree Snail Drymaeus multilineatus (Gastropoda: Bulimulidae) by Iguana iguana (Reptilia: Iguanidae) on Key Biscayne, Florida. Southeastern Naturalist, Vol. 4, No. 2 (2005), pp. 361-364
Troyer, K. 1984. Diet selection and digestion in Iguana iguana: the importance of age and nutrient requirements, Oecologia 61 (2): 201-207.
Tyler, R. E. 1950. On the iguana of Saint Lucia, Metopoceros cornutus of Wagler. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 18, 106-110
UNEP-WCMC. 14 November, 2006. UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species Iguana iguana
Summary: Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. They are listed in the three CITES Appendices. The species are grouped in the Appendices according to how threatened they are by international trade. They include some whole groups, such as primates, cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises), sea turtles, parrots, corals, cacti and orchids. But in some cases only a subspecies or geographically separate population of a species (for example the population of just one country) is listed. To find more details of the CITES species, you can search the CITES-listed species database hosted by UNEP-WCMC.
CITES species database is available from: http://www.cites.org/
This page is available from: http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/CITES/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?displaylanguage=eng&Genus=Iguana&Species=iguana&source=animals&Country= [Accessed 25 October 2006]
Woodward, D.L., Khakhria, R. and Johnson, W.M.1997. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets, Journal of Clinical Microbiology 11(35): 2786-2790.
Summary: Study on the link between human salmonellosis and some reptilian pets.
Contact
The following 2 contacts offer information an advice on Iguana iguana
Lorvelec,
Olivier
Geographic region: Caribbean, Europe, Pacific
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique
Address:
Equipe �cologie des Invasions Biologiques - UMR (INRA/Agrocampus Rennes) �cologie et Sant� des �cosyst�mes - INRA - Campus de Beaulieu - B�timent 16 - 35 000 Rennes
Phone:
Fax:
Maillard,
Jean-Fran�ois
Geographic region: Caribbean
Ecosystem: Terrestrial
Organization:
Office National de la Chasse et de la Faune Sauvage. Cellule technique de Martinique
Address:
s/c DIREN 4 Bd de Verdun 97200 Fort de France
Phone:
Fax: