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Common name
munkparakit (Swedish), caturra-da-argentina (Portuguese), matto grasso (Portuguese), papo branco (Portuguese), cotorra argentina (Spanish), munkkiaratti (Finnish), quaker parakeet (English), quaker parrot (English), quaker conure (English), monniksparikiet (Dutch), monk parakeet (English), grey-breasted parakeet (English), grey-headed parakeet (English), perruche-souris (French), convue veuve (French), parrocchetto monaco (Italian), mniszka (Polish), mönchssittich (German), burátpapagáj (Hungarian), catita común (Spanish)
Synonym
Psittacus monachus , (Boddaert, 1783)
Similar species
Melopsittacus undulatus, Psittacula krameri, Brotogeris versicolurus
Summary
Myipositta monachus (monk parakeets) are popular in the pet trade business. Their distinction as the only nest-building parrot has allowed them to adapt to cold climates and urban areas, thus increasing their range when intentionally or unintentionally released. In Argentina, where Myipositta monachus are native, they are reported to cause one billion dollars worth of crop damage annually. They have, as yet, not significantly harmed any other invaded region.
Species Description
Myiopsitta monachus is a small, stocky parrot, measuring approximately 30 cm in total length (Campbell,1998) with a wingspan of 53cm and a mass of 90-120g (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998). M. monachus is mostly green with a gray or off white face, cheeks, throat and breast. They have a bright yellow lower abdomen and vent area. The flight feathers are blue-black, and the tail feathers are long and green. They have a pale orange or dull yellow bill and gray legs (Campbell, 1998) and a dark brown iris (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998). Immature M. monachus are a brighter green with a greenish forehead. (Campbell, 2000) They do not exhibit sexual dimorphism (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998), with males and females having identical plumage. Males are generally slightly larger than females, except during breeding season when the body mass of females increases slightly (Newman et al, 2004). They are usually found in loose flocks of 15-20 birds, although flocks of up to 100 are not uncommon. M. monachus are quite vocal with a wide vocabulary of screeches, squawks and chattering noises (Campbell 2000).
Notes
Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet) is a CITES-listed species. Please follow this link CITES- Myiopsitta monachus for more details. Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade.

Monk parakeets display several types of \"helping behaviours\" that may have contributed to their success as alien species. Included are communal nest building, delayed breeding, the presence of non-breeding mature adults, nest sentinel systems and reduced natal dispersal. After leaving the nest, young birds often remain close, building their own nests or adding on to an existing nest. Nests can be small, housing a single pair or up to one metre in diameter and weighing 200kg and house multiple pairs. Nests have roofs and entry holes, mainly on the underside and often multiple chambers for nesting pairs and small groups of non-breeding indivduals. (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998). \"Once the site of the nest structure is selected, individual monk parakeets construct a nest cavity, affixing it to the main nest structure.\" (Burger and Gochfeld, 2005). M. monachus are very social birds, having eleven or more different calls that each elicit a different response from others in the colony. (Campbell, 2000)

Lifecycle Stages
In the studied Punta Blanca population, Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet) eggs hatched asynchronously after 24 days. The hatch rate was just over 50%. The hatchlings are covered with yellow down and are fed by the parents via regurgitation (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998) for approximately 40 days, after which they leave the nest (Campbell, 2000). The nestlings reach a weight of approximately 106 grammes before fledging (Campbell, 2000).
Uses
Known for their beauty and intelligence, Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeets) are a popular pet, especially in North America, since the 1960's (Campbell, 2000).
Habitat Description
Myiopsitta monachus prefer open habitats. In their native range they populate savannah woodlands, farmland, plantations, orchards and cultivated forests (Campbell, 2000), from low elevations up to 1600m above sea level (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998). They are the only parrot that builds its own nest instead of using existing cavities. They weave sticks and spiny branches together to create a sturdy nest used year round for roosting. The nests are almost always 10 metres or more above the ground, often in tall trees (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998).

Studies of monk parakeet populations at Arroyito and Jesus Maria, Cordoba province, Argentina, showed that monk parakeets preferred Eucalyptus trees (Arroyito) and native trees (Jesus Naria) for breeding nests (Navarro, Martella, & Bucher, 1992). In its introduced range they live almost exclusively in urban areas, preferring open habitats, including parks, planted urban areas, golf courses, farms, gardens and orchards (Campbell, 2000).

Reproduction
In South America, gonadal development begins in August, peaks in November and declines rapidly thereafter. Testes enlarge to fifteen times their normal size and ovaries grow in similar proportion. This pattern supports the idea of a fixed annual cycle driven by a photoperiod. South American monk parakeets copulate in October while North American birds copulate in the spring months as the photoperiod increases. In a study of a Myiopsitta monachus population in Punta Blanca in the Buenos Aires province of Argentina, pairs produced the first eggs in mid-October. The average clutch size was 7 eggs (range 5-12) (Campbell 2000).
Nutrition
In their native range, M. monachus are generalist granivores and will eat maize, millet, sorghum, sunflowers and other seeds, as well as some fruits, nuts, berries and insects. Year round favorite foods include thistle (Asteraceae) and grass (Poaceae), and fruits of palm and other native trees, largely tala (Celtis spinosa). (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998). Monk parakeets are highly flexible in their food habits (Pruett-Jones et al, 2007). In their introduced range, they feed on the seeds and fruits of exotic ornamental plants and on bird seed provided year round by humans. (Hyman and Pruett-Jones, 1995). They use their large beak to consume seeds and take bites from large pieces of fruit. They have also been seen cracking pine cones to get to the seeds and snipping the heads off dandelions and eating the seeds. In winter, M. monachus often feeds in large flocks of several hundred while a few sentinels sit on high perches and search for predators. During the breeding season, flocks larger than 4 birds are rare. M. monachus generally feeds 3.2-8km from the nest site and may forage as far as 24km away durning the non-breeding season. (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998).
Pathway
Nearly 65,000 monk parakeets were imported into the U.S. from 1968 to 1972 (Spreyer and Bucher, 1998).

Principal source: Campbell, Todd S., 2000. The Monk Parakeet. The Institute for Biological Invasions.

Compiler: National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)
Updates with support from the Overseas Territories Environmental Programme (OTEP) project XOT603, a joint project with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment

Review: Expert review underway: Antonio Rom�n Mu�oz Gallego. Grupo SEO-MALAGA. Spain

Publication date: 2010-10-04

Recommended citation: Global Invasive Species Database (2016) Species profile: Myiopsitta monachus. Downloaded from http://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/species.php?sc=1021 on 28-07-2016.

General Impacts
In its native range, M. monachus is considered a significant agricultural pest, often causing damage to field crops and orchards. There have also been reports of transmission lines short-circuited by nesting birds. In its introduced range, impacts are mainly associated with nesting behaviours. Monk parakeets build large bulky nests on communication towers and electric utiliites such as distribution poles and transmission towers. On communication towers they are simply a maintenance problem and do not affect communications. However nests on electric utilities can cause outages and fires, as the large nests can complete electric circuits. This problem is pronounced in wet weather. Monk parakeet nests can cause significant effects to electric utilities including decrease in electric reliability, equipment damage, and lost revenue from nest and bird caused power outages, increase in operation and maintenance costs associated with nest removal and repair of damaged structures as well as public safety concerns (Newman et al, 2004).Costs associated with monk parakeets can be quite considerable. For example, during a five-month period in 2001 in South Florida 198 outages related to monk parakeets were logged. Lost revenue from electric power sales was $24,000 and the cost for repair of outages was estimated at $221,000 (Newman et al, 2004). However in it's introduced range M. monachus has not caused the agricultural devastation predicted, nor has there been any solid evidence that native fauna are negatively affected by their establishment. There is also the possibility that monk parakeets will spread plant diseases by transporting infected planting material to uninfected trees. For example, in Florida citrus canker is a major concern (Newman et al, 2004). There has also been some speculation that growing urban populations of M. monachus could become source populations for surrounding areas. The birds are widely admired by city dwellers who see little other wildlife (Campbell, 2000). Fitzwater (1988) also states \"In addition to being a fruit crop pest in South America, it has great potential for dissemination of Newcastle disease. It also cuts trigs and buds from ornamental trees. They are one of the most raucous of birds.\"
Management Info
Countries (or multi-country features) with distribution records for Myiopsitta monachus
NATIVE RANGE
  • argentina
  • bolivia
  • brazil
  • paraguay
  • south america
  • uruguay
Informations on Myiopsitta monachus has been recorded for the following locations. Click on the name for additional informations.
Lorem Ipsum
Location Status Invasiveness Occurrence Source
Details of Myiopsitta monachus in information
Status
Invasiveness
Arrival date
Occurrence
Source
Introduction
Species notes for this location
Location note
Management notes for this location
Impact
Mechanism:
Outcome:
Ecosystem services:
Impact information
In its native range, M. monachus is considered a significant agricultural pest, often causing damage to field crops and orchards. There have also been reports of transmission lines short-circuited by nesting birds. In its introduced range, impacts are mainly associated with nesting behaviours. Monk parakeets build large bulky nests on communication towers and electric utiliites such as distribution poles and transmission towers. On communication towers they are simply a maintenance problem and do not affect communications. However nests on electric utilities can cause outages and fires, as the large nests can complete electric circuits. This problem is pronounced in wet weather. Monk parakeet nests can cause significant effects to electric utilities including decrease in electric reliability, equipment damage, and lost revenue from nest and bird caused power outages, increase in operation and maintenance costs associated with nest removal and repair of damaged structures as well as public safety concerns (Newman et al, 2004).Costs associated with monk parakeets can be quite considerable. For example, during a five-month period in 2001 in South Florida 198 outages related to monk parakeets were logged. Lost revenue from electric power sales was $24,000 and the cost for repair of outages was estimated at $221,000 (Newman et al, 2004). However in it's introduced range M. monachus has not caused the agricultural devastation predicted, nor has there been any solid evidence that native fauna are negatively affected by their establishment. There is also the possibility that monk parakeets will spread plant diseases by transporting infected planting material to uninfected trees. For example, in Florida citrus canker is a major concern (Newman et al, 2004). There has also been some speculation that growing urban populations of M. monachus could become source populations for surrounding areas. The birds are widely admired by city dwellers who see little other wildlife (Campbell, 2000). Fitzwater (1988) also states \"In addition to being a fruit crop pest in South America, it has great potential for dissemination of Newcastle disease. It also cuts trigs and buds from ornamental trees. They are one of the most raucous of birds.\"
Red List assessed species 0:
Locations
ARGENTINA
CAYMAN ISLANDS
CHILE
UNITED STATES
Mechanism
[2] Predation
[1] Disease transmission
[1] Parasitism
Outcomes
[1] Environmental Species - Population
  • [1] Plant/animal health
[5] Socio-Economic
  • [3] Damage to agriculture
  • [2] Damage to infrastructures
Management information
Management Category
Prevention
Control
Unknown
Bibliography
44 references found for Myiopsitta monachus

Managment information
Avery, Michael L; Yoder, Christi A.; Tillman, Eric A., 2008. Diazacon inhibits reproduction in invasive monk parakeet populations Journal of Wildlife Management. 72(6). AUG 2008. 1449-1452.
Bomford, M., 2003. Risk Assessment for the Import and Keeping of Exotic Vertebrates in Australia. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.
Summary: Available from: http://www.feral.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/PC12803.pdf [Accessed August 19 2010]
Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M., 2009. Exotic monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) in New Jersey: nest site selection, rebuilding following removal, and their urban wildlife appeal Urban Ecosystems. 12(2). JUN 2009. 185-196.
Campbell, T. S. 2000. The Monk Parakeet, Myiopsitta monachus. Institute for Biological Invasions. Invader of the Month.
Summary: A detailed species account of M. monachus with distribution, management and biological information.
Available from: http://invasions.bio.utk.edu/invaders/monk.html [Accessed 12 October 2006]
Fitzwater, W.D. 1988. Solutions to Urban Bird Problems. Proceedings of the Thirteenth Vertebrate Press Conference. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Summary: Describes implications of monk parakeet introduction in South America.
Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1065&context=vpcthirteen [Accessed 10 July 2010]
Fryer, G. 1960. Concerning the proposed introduction of Nile perch into Lake Victoria. East African Agricultural Journal 25(4): 267-270.
Summary: The suggestion that the fishery in Lake Victoria would benefit if the Nile perch were introduced is based on ignorance of several fundamental biological concepts. Such an introduction is not only undesirable but would jeopardize the existing commercial fishery.
Herrera, Mauricio; Hennessey, Bennett., 2007. Quantifying the illegal parrot trade in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, with emphasis on threatened species Bird Conservation International. 17(4). DEC 2007. 295-300.
Iriarte, A.J., Lobos, G.A., & F.M. Jaksic. 2005. Invasive Vertebrate Species in Chile and Their Control and Monitorings by Governmental Agencies. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural, Vol. 78, No. 1.
Summary: Describes the status of exotic vertebrates in Chile and measures taken to control them. After an introduction, the vertebrates are divided into categories for more specific discussion.
Available from: http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0716-078X2005000100010&script=sci_arttext&tlng=en [Accessed 18 October 2006]
IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG)., 2010. A Compilation of Information Sources for Conservation Managers.
Summary: This compilation of information sources can be sorted on keywords for example: Baits & Lures, Non Target Species, Eradication, Monitoring, Risk Assessment, Weeds, Herbicides etc. This compilation is at present in Excel format, this will be web-enabled as a searchable database shortly. This version of the database has been developed by the IUCN SSC ISSG as part of an Overseas Territories Environmental Programme funded project XOT603 in partnership with the Cayman Islands Government - Department of Environment. The compilation is a work under progress, the ISSG will manage, maintain and enhance the database with current and newly published information, reports, journal articles etc.
Kazuhiro Eguchi and Hitoha E. Amano: �Spread of exotic birds in Japan�. Ornithological Science, Vol. 3, pp.3-11 (2004).
Summary: Includes pertinent information on several exotic bird species and their resons for introduction.
Available from: http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/osj/3/1/3/_pdf [Accessed 16 October 2006]
Kibbe, D.P., and N.J. Cutright. 1973. The Monk Parakeet in New York. Wildlife Damage Management, Internet Center for Bird Control Seminars Proceedings. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Summary: Discusses the history, impacts, management and status of M. monachus in New York, US.
Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/icwdmbirdcontrol/101 [Accessed 10 July 2010]
Munoz, Antonio-Roman; Real, Raimundo., 2006. Assessing the potential range expansion of the exotic monk parakeet in Spain Diversity & Distributions. 12(6). NOV 2006. 656-665.
Newman, J. R., C. M. Newman, J. R. Lindsay, B. Merchant, M. L. Avery, & S. Pruett-Jones., 2004. Monk Parakeets: An Expanding Problem on Power Lines and Other Electrical Utility Structures. Presented at the Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management 8th International Symposium; Saratoga Springs, NY; September 2004.
Pruett-Jones, S., Newman, J.R., Newman, C.M., Avery, M.L., Lindsay, J.R. 2007. Population viability analysis of monk parakeets in the United States and examination of alternative management strategies. Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1(1): 35-44.
Summary: A population viability analysis (PVA) of Myiopsitta monachus in the United States and simulated effects to populations in response to control measures.
Pruett-Jones, Stephan., James R. Newman., Christian M. Newman., Michael L. Avery and James R. Lindsay., 2007. Population viability analysis of monk parakeets in the United States and examination of alternative management strategies Human�Wildlife Confl icts 1(1):35�44, Spring 2007
Russello, Michael A.; Avery, Michael L.; Wright, Timothy F., 2008. Genetic evidence links invasive monk parakeet populations in the United States to the international pet trade BMC Evolutionary Biology. 8 JUL 24 2008. Article No.: 217
Spreyer, M.F., and E.H. Bucher. 1998. Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus. The Birds of North America, No. 322 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadelphia, PA.
Summary: A thorough online species account detailing biology, distribution, behavior, and management information.
Available from: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/BNA/account/Monk_Parakeet [Accessed 12 October 2006]
The State of Queensland, Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, 2012.Invasive species risk assessment: Monk/quaker parakeet Myiopsitta monachus
Summary: Available from: http://www.daff.qld.gov.au/documents/Biosecurity_EnvironmentalPests/IPA-Monk-Parakeet-Risk-Assessment.pdf [Accessed 1 March 2012]
Tillman, E.A., Van Doom, A., & M.L. Avery. 2000. Bird Damage to Tropical Fruit in South Florida. Wildlife Damage Management Conferences Proceedings. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Summary: A study of damage to tropical fruit in South Florida by a number of birds, inluding monk parakeets.
Available from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1012&context=icwdm_wdmconfproc [Accessed 19 October 2006]
Varnham, K. 2006. Non-native species in UK Overseas Territories: a review. JNCC Report 372. Peterborough: United Kingdom.
Summary: This database compiles information on alien species from British Overseas Territories.
Available from: http://www.jncc.gov.uk/page-3660 [Accessed 10 November 2009]
Witte, F., Van Densen, W. L. T. 1995. Fish stocks and fisheries of Lake Victoria. Samara Publishing Ltd., UK. 404pp.
Summary: The results of eighteen years research on the fisheries of Lake Victoria are presented. The introduction is followed by sections dealing successively with fish and fisheries, methodologies for sampling, gear and boats, methods for monitoring fish stocks,
Yoder, C.A., Avery, M.L., Keacher, K.L. & Tillman, E.A. 2007. Use of DiazaCon� as a reproductive inhibitor for monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). Wildlife Research 34: 8�13.
Summary: A study assessing the effectiveness of the contraceptive DiazaCon on monk parakeet reproduction and potential usefulness as a control measure.
Yoder, Christi A., Michael L. Avery., Kandy L. Keacher and Eric A. Tillman., 2007. Use of DiazaCon� as a reproductive inhibitor for monk parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus). Wildlife Research, 2007, 34, 8�13
General information
Aramburu, Roxana M.; Pezzoni, M. ; Calvo, Silvina; Arambarri, Ana M., 2009. Presence of thorns in the gizzards of nestling Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta m. monachus) Ornitologia Neotropical. 20(1). 2009. 93-98.
Buhrman-Deever, Susannah C; Rappaport, Amy R.; Bradbury, Jack W., 2007. Geographic variation in contact calls of feral North American populations of the Monk Parakeet. Condor. 109(2). MAY 2007. 389-398.
Burger, S. & M. Gochfeld. 2005. Nesting Behavior and Nest Site Selection in Monk Parakeets Myiopsitta monachus in the Pantanal of Brazil. Springer Berlin/Heidleberg.
Summary: A study of nesting behavior of monk parakeets in the Brazilian Pantanal.
Butler, Christopher J. 2003. Population Biology of the Introduced Rose-Ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri in the UK. University of Oxford. Department of Zoology. Edward Grey Institue of Field Ornithology.
Summary: A comprehensive account of the population biology of Psittacula krameri in the United Kingdom. It includes invaluable information about the range and spread of this invasive.
Available from: http://www.biology.uco.edu/PersonalPages/CButler/thesis.pdf [Accessed 8 December 2009]
Butler, Christopher J. 2003. Species Status Review: Monk Parakeets in Oregon. Oregon Birds 29(2):97.
Summary: Information about monk parakeets in Oregon. Sightings, counties, and established nest information of monk parakeet.
Available from: http://www.biology.uco.edu/PersonalPages/CButler/monk_parakeet.pdf [Accessed 8 December 2009]
Butler, Christopher J. 2005. Feral Parrots in the Continental United States and United Kingdom: Past, Present and Future. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 19(2):142-149.
Summary: Describes the history and status of feral parrots in the US and UK including parakeets.
Available from: http://biology.uco.edu/personalpages/cbutler/jams_butler.pdf [Accessed 8 December 2009]
CONABIO. 2008. Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras en M�xico. Especies invasoras - Aves. Comisi�n Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. Fecha de acceso.
Summary: English:
The species list sheet for the Mexican information system on invasive species currently provides information related to Scientific names, family, group and common names, as well as habitat, status of invasion in Mexico, pathways of introduction and links to other specialised websites. Some of the higher risk species already have a direct link to the alert page. It is important to notice that these lists are constantly being updated, please refer to the main page (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), under the section Novedades for information on updates.
Invasive species - birds is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Aves [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Spanish:
La lista de especies del Sistema de informaci�n sobre especies invasoras de m�xico cuenta actualmente con informaci�n aceca de nombre cient�fico, familia, grupo y nombre com�n, as� como h�bitat, estado de la invasi�n en M�xico, rutas de introducci�n y ligas a otros sitios especializados. Algunas de las especies de mayor riesgo ya tienen una liga directa a la p�gina de alertas. Es importante resaltar que estas listas se encuentran en constante proceso de actualizaci�n, por favor consulte la portada (http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Portada), en la secci�n novedades, para conocer los cambios.
Especies invasoras - Aves is available from: http://www.conabio.gob.mx/invasoras/index.php/Especies_invasoras_-_Aves [Accessed 30 July 2008]
Dangoisse, Gersende., 2009. A Study of the Population of Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) in Brussels Aves. 46(2). JUN 2009. 57-69.
Hauser, L., Carvalho, G. R., Pitcher, T. J. and Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. 1998. Genetic affinities of an introduced predator: Nile perch in Lake Victoria, East Africa. Molecular Ecology 7: 849-859.
Summary: Several populations of Nile perch have been used to stock the lakes of the Lake Victoria system. The taxonomic status of the introduced populations has been examined through enzyme analysis. Geneticially, introduced Nile perch in Lakes Kyoga and Nabugabo
Hyman J, & S. Pruett-Jones. 1995. Natural History of the Monk Parakeet in Hyde Park, Chicago. Wilson Bulletin [WILLSON BULL.] Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 510-517.
Summary: A study of the breeding and feeding habits of a population of monk parakeets in Hyde Park, Illinois, US.
Available from: http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v107n03/p0510-p0517.pdf [Accessed 17 October 2006]
ITIS (Integrated Taxonomic Information System), 2006. Online Database Myiopsitta monachus.
Summary: An online database that provides taxonomic information, common names, synonyms and geographical jurisdiction of a species. In addition links are provided to retrieve biological records and collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Data Portal and bioscience articles from BioOne journals.
Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=177723 [Accessed 12 October 2006]
Navarro, J.L., Martella, M.B., & E.H. Bucher. 1992. Breeding Season and Productivity of Monk Parakeets in Cordoba, Argentina. Wilson Bulletin [WILLSON BULL.]. Vol. 104, No.3, pp. 413-424.
Summary: This study is one of the best studies on native monk parakeet populations and their breeding characteristics.
Available from: http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Wilson/v104n03/p0413-p0424.pdf [Accessed 18 October 2006]
Newman, J.R., Newman, C.M., Lindsay, J.R., Merchant, B., Avery, M.L. Pruett, S. 2004. Monk Parakeets: An Expanding Problem on Power Lines and Other Electrical Utility Structures. Environmental Concerns in Rights-of-Way Management 8th International Symposium; Saratoga Springs, NY.
Summary: Describes basic biology of the monk parakeet and it s impacts in the United States; particularly the impacts caused by nesting in electrical structures. Also describes some basic information on management and control options.
Peris, S.T. & R.M. Aramburu. 1995. Reproductive Phenology and Breeding Success of Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus in Argentina. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment Vol.30, No. 2, pp. 115-119.
Summary: Gives statistical information about breeding success in study of Punta Blanca, Argentina monk parakeet population.
Pranty, Bill., 2009. Nesting Substrates of Monk Parakeets (Myiopsitta monachus) in Florida Florida Field Naturalist. 37(2). MAY 2009. 51-57
Pruett-Jones, Stephen; Newman, James R.; Newman, Christian M.; Lindsay, James R., 2005. Population growth of monk parakeets in Florida Florida Field Naturalist. 33(1). February 2005. 1-14.
Real, Raimundo; Marquez, Ana L.; Estrada, Alba; Munoz, A. Roman; Vargas, J. Mario., 2008. Modelling chorotypes of invasive vertebrates in mainland Spain Diversity & Distributions. 14(2). MAR 2008. 364-373.
Roll, Uri; Dayan, Tamar; Simberloff, Daniel., 2008. Non-indigenous terrestrial vertebrates in Israel and adjacent areas Biological Invasions. 10(5). JUN 2008. 659-672.
Russello, M. A; Saranathan, V.; Buhrman-Deever, S.; Eberhard, J.; Caccone, A., 2007. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the invasive monk parakeet (Myiopsitta monachus) Molecular Ecology Notes. 7(6). NOV 2007. 990-992.
South, J.M., and S. Pruett-Jones. 2000. Patterns of Flock Size, Diet, and Vigilance of Naturalize Monk Parakeets in Hyde Park, Chicago. The Condor 102:848-854.
UNEP-WCMC. 18 October, 2006. UNEP-WCMC Species Database: CITES-Listed Species. Myiopsitta monachus
Summary: Roughly 5,000 species of animals and 28,000 species of plants are protected by CITES against over-exploitation through international trade. They are listed in the three CITES Appendices. The species are grouped in the Appendices according to how threatened they are by international trade. They include some whole groups, such as primates, cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises), sea turtles, parrots, corals, cacti and orchids. But in some cases only a subspecies or geographically separate population of a species (for example the population of just one country) is listed. To find more details of the CITES species, you can search the CITES-listed species database hosted by UNEP-WCMC.
CITES species database is available from: http://www.cites.org/
This page is available from: http://sea.unep-wcmc.org/isdb/CITES/Taxonomy/tax-species-result.cfm?displaylanguage=eng&source=animals&Genus=Myiopsitta&Species=monachus&Country=&tabname=names [Accessed 25 October 2006]
Contact
The following 4 contacts offer information an advice on Myiopsitta monachus
Lindsay,
Jim
Jim Lindsay is an electric utility biologist knowledgeable in the area of Myiopsitta monachus and the impacts of this invasive species on the reliability of utility scale electrical transmission and distribution system in the United states. His current research is on the contraceptive Diazacon to reduce parakeet populations by decreasing reproductive success without physically harming birds.
Organization:
Principal Biologist. Florida Power and Light Company (FPL)
Address:

Phone:
561 691 7032
Fax:
Newman,
Jim
Jim Newman has been conducting research on the monk parakeet since 2002. This research has involved population studies on monk parakeets in Florida, Connecticut and New York, USA. Research has also involved in control and management of monk parakeet on power lines.
Organization:
Pandion Systems, Inc.
Environmental Science, Research, Communications & Training
Address:
Pandion Systems, Inc.
Environmental Science, Research, Communications & Training
102 NE 10th Avenue, 1st Floor
Gainesville, FL 32601
Phone:
(352) 372-4747
Fax:
(352) 372-4714
Snoeks,
Jos
Expert on cichlidae from Africa, mainly Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire, Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda, Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi
Organization:
Cichlid Research Unit, Zoology Department, Africa Museum.
Address:
Leuvensesteenweg 13, B-3080 Tervuren, Belgium.
Phone:
+32 2 7695628
Fax:
+32 2 7695642
Witte,
Frans
Cichlidae from Lake Victoria - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania
Organization:
Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden
Address:
P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands.
Phone:
+31 71 5275027
Fax:
+31 71 5274900